Art is a form of social consciousness, the spiritual part of human culture, a particular kind of practical and spiritual development of the world. In this regard, the art includes a group of varieties of human activity that refer to the specific and artistic reproduction of reality: painting, music, theater, and fiction. In the 13th-14th centuries the medieval art of Western and Central Europe, especially the church and civic architecture, reached its development. The word “gothic” comes from the East Germanic barbarian tribe that inflicted a mortal blow on the Roman Empire. During the Renaissance the medieval art was called gothic because it seemed rude and barbarous to people of that time. However, the Goths do not have any relation to it. [...]
Every era gave rise to the art relevant to the current terms, close and understandable for people of the time. In medieval times, the power of the church was so great that even the kings had to reckon with it. The Gothic masters usually used the bright colors and ideas generated by people's imagination. Moreover, the influence of a more rational perception of the world, the ideology of the progressive tendencies of the time was stronger in the Gothic masters’ art than in the Romanesque. High vaults of cathedrals, stained glass windows, through which the light rays streamed, the solemn sound of the organ – all these elements of style impressed the human imagination and inspired the idea of the sanctity of the divine power. [...]
Statues and pictorial images of saints were excessively elongated or severely truncated. At the time, artists did not know laws of perspective, and, therefore, the...