Turkish Educational System
The Education System
When we come to examine the institutions that have sustained the vital functions of the Peoples living in Turkey, we must bear in mind that, from the year 2000 B.C. when they first appeared on the pages of history, they have been a part of three separate civilizations. During the period when they led a nomadic life in Central Asia, they were part of the institutions that harmonized with their way of life. Upon accepting the Islamic faith, and after their expeditions to Anatolia, Turks with this admixture of Islamic and Turkish elements produced a civilization and culture all of its own, which was called the "Ottoman Composition". After the establishment of the Turkish Republic on October 29, 1923'Turkey entered the sphere of western civilization and culture, and gradually adopted institutions and elements from the west merged with those of Turkey to form the "Republican Composition". Following the adoption of Islam, coupled with the changes in the political boundaries of the Turks and their transition to a settled civilization and new way of life, educational institutions more attuned to the times of the Seljuks and the Ottomans led to theological schools, dervish lodges, guilds and fraternities. Parallel to the developments in the west, as of the 18th century, schools of engineering, military sciences, administrative sciences, medicine, law, veterinary sciences and fine arts were opened. Furthermore, high schools were opened to bring students to the level where they could follow the studies in the universityies. Following the foundation of the Turkish Republic, as in other fields reforms were also undertaken in education. Under the law for the unification of education, which was ratified in 1924, all schools were annexed to the Ministry of Education. The Ministry of Education was charged with the task of implementing a contemporary mode of education training for Turkish...
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