Post World War I Turkish Reforms Mustafa Kemal served as founder and president of the new Republic of Turkey for 15 years, from 1923 to his death in 1938. He introduced numerous sweeping reforms that altered the political, social, legal, economic, and cultural spheres of the new republic. His goal: to raise Turkey to the level of modern civilization. 6 groups of major reforms: 1. political reforms November 1922, abolishment of sultanate October 1923, proclamation of republic March 3, 1924, abolishment of caliphate 2. social reforms 1926-1934 recognition of equal rights for men and women ex.: 1926, new civil code abolished polygamy and gave women equal rights in divorce, custody, and inheritance through 1920s/1930s he promoted women’s rights he also made educational system co-ed from grade school to universities ahead of many European nations, giving women full political rights by mid-30s, eighteen women were in parliament
More Social Reforms Reform of Headgear and Dress (November 1925) – European hats replaced the Fez, women stopped wearing the veil (heavily discouraged), Western clothing for men and women was encouraged. By 1934, religious-based clothing was banned. November 1925, Closure of Dervish lodges. Believed they were used for Muslim organizing. June 1934, Law on Family Names: o everyone had to adopt a last name o he became Mustafa Kemal Ataturk (Father of Turks) November 1934, Abolishment of Honorary Titles o ex.: Pasha was a commonly bought title Adoption of International Calendar, hours and measurements (1925-1931). Instead of Islamic Calendar – it was a move towards secularization. 3. legal reforms 1924-1937, Abolishment of the Canon Law (old Ottoman Law) transferred to secular legal system beginning with adoption of Turkish Civil Code and other laws (1924-1937) 4. education reforms March 1924, Unification of Education: all schools placed under government started program of science transfer from...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document