TRENDS IN DIOXINS AND DIOXIN LIKE CHEMICALS CONTAMINATION LEVELS IN HEN EGGS COLLECTED IN THE INDUSTRIAL AREA, COCHIN, SOUTH INDIA
Thushara K. Sasi, Mithra IV, Sujitha E and Anbu Munusamy
Dioxin Research Unit, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Thiruvananthapuran, Kerala, India 695019
As a consequence of previous estimations by us of Eloor (Industrial area of Cochin, South India), during 2008, dioxins and furans levels were determined in eggs from free range hens owned by private owners in the industrial area once again during 2009. This survey stem from some fears that free range eggs could be contaminated by local environmental sources (e.g. soil, grass, earthworms) as a result of the presence in this area of intensive industrial and domestic activities. Samples of backyard and free range chicken eggs at eighteen locations were collected and the quantifications of dioxin and furan congeners were carried out as per internationally accredited methods using high resolution gas chromatograph coupled with low resolution quadrupole mass spectrometer. The congener pattern shows the presence of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD, 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD, OCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF, 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD and OCDF in all samples in the range of 2-15 pg/g of lipid weight during 2008 and 3.12–18.2 pg/g during 2009 with a slight increase which proves continued persistent organic pollutants contamination in this area. OCDF congener was predominant in four samples collected during the year 2008 and a similar pattern observed in samples collected during 2009 but with higher levels. The results reveals long time continuous deposition of dioxins and furans in soils from industrial sources and open burning of domestic wastes with plastics and PVC could be the other reason. Keywords: dioxin, furans, eggs, hen, contamination, Eloor, Cochin and India.
Eggs form part of balanced diet, but same could be bioindicators of environmental pollution.The contribution of eggs to the daily intake of dioxins in humans is estimated at about 4%. The hens intake of dioxins from various sources leads to an increase in the dioxin content of eggs. These sources include feed, soil, worms and insects. Consumption of worms and insects and particularly ingestion of soil are important causes of high dioxin levels in eggs. Human exposure can occur through the diet, thus also through the consumption of eggs. The site selected for the Egg sampling is Eloor in the Udhyogamandal Industrial Area and Edayar in Kochi (Ernakulam District) in the state of Kerala. Eloor, is a riverine island along the banks of Periyar river,is the industrial hub of Kochi, the commercial capital of Kerala and is home to Kerala’s largest industrial cluster, the Udhyogamandal Industrial Estate. Eloor has a total expanse of about 11.21Km2 with 30,000 residents.Mostly Eloor appear in the limelight for the wrong reasons.. They manufacture a range of chemicals: petrochemical products. This is because of the presence of a vast number of industries in Eloor-Edayar or Udhyogamandal region. Majority of these industries such as Fertilizers and Chemicals Travancore Ltd. (FACT), Hindustan Insecticides Ltd (HIL), and Indian Rare Earths Ltd (IRE), Merchem, Binani Zinc Ltd. etc manufacture products which result in air, water, and land contamination. Some of the industrial products are pesticides, rare-earth elements, rubber processing chemicals, fertilizers, zinc/chrome products and leather products. Many of these industries are 50 years old and employ highly polluting and obsolete technologies. Around 260 million liters of industrial effluents with wide spectrum of pollutants reach Periyar river daily from the industrial belt.The sampling sites are randomly spread all over the industrial belt (Figure 1). Eloor is 19th in the list of 40 POP hotspots...
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