The first three case of by 2003, the reported cumulative number of cases amounted to some 58,000. Of these, slightly more than 6,000 persons, 11 per cent, had died of AIDS (Table 6.1). The number presented in Table 6.1 reflects only those who have been reported. About 80 per cent of reported HIV/AIDS cases occur among those aged 20-39, the younger and potentially more productive segment of the nation’s population.
Table 6.1 (Cumulative Number of reported HIV and AIDS Cases, Malaysia, 1990 – 2003)
The detection of HIV infection in the country may be affected by the policy on HIV Screening which requires testing for eight groups:
1. Women receiving antenatal care in government facilities, (private practitioners are encouraged to carry out HIV testing on the small proportion of antenatal patients using private facilities, but this is not a universal practice 2. Blood donors
3. Drug rehabilitation Centre’s (DRC) inmates
4. High-risk prison inmates (drug users, drug dealers, and sex workers); 5. Confirmed tuberculosis cases (TB)
6. Sexually transmitted disease (STD) cases
7. Patients with suspected clinical symptoms
8. Traced contacts of HIV infected persons
9. Premarital couples
10. 10. Migrant workers
11. 11. Participants of harm reduction programmed
Routine screening was implemented for selected target groups in 1989 and expanded over a period of time to cover the eight groups above. Moreover, there is an increase in the number of Centre’s providing avenues for voluntary counseling testing. The rise in number of AIDS deaths has been even more dramatic from 14 in 1990 to6, 130 in 2003 (Table 6.1). Based on the World Health Organization (WHO)classification, the record to date classifies Malaysia as a country experiencing a concentrated epidemic, since HIV prevalence has been less than 1 per cent among the general population, but consistently higher than 5 per cent among injecting drug users (IDUs) over the past 10 years. In Malaysia the HIV/AIDS epidemic is at an early stage and may not have peaked. Low prevalence may be a poor indicator of future prevalence and impact owing to the long wave nature of the disease, in terms of its biological spectrum and, even more so, its social and economic squealer
Aid / HIV by
H I V by mode of transmission
WHO classifies Malaysia as having a concentrated epidemic of HIV/AIDS since the Problem affects certain population groups and is not yet well established in the general population. Of a total of 58,000 HIV/AIDS cases reported by 2003, there are 76 per cent of comprised IDUs (Figure 6.1). Hence, the likely mode of transmission is through the sharing needles. Another 12 per cent were categorized under heterosexual activity ,Only 1 per cent under homosexual/bisexual behavior and vertical transmission from mother to-child and blood transfusions have constituted relatively low-risk categories thus far(Figure 6.1).While these categories serve as a simplified means of identifying risk groups, it is recognized that they are not mutually exclusive. In particular, IDUs are also likely to be sexually active and engage in high-risk sexual behaviors, such as unprotected sex and sex for drugs. Interestingly, the proportion of reported HIV/AIDS among IDU categories for the recent past has remained stable at around 80 per cent of total cases, while the proportion of detection rate of infection among drug users in rehabilitation centers and prisons has shown a declining trend.
HIV case by sex
In Malaysia, the bulk of infected cases are males who accounted for more than 90 per cent of those living with HIV and AIDS in 2003. As noted, most infections are among IDUs of whom only a small fraction is female. However, the proportion of women with HIV has increased over time, rising from 1.4 per cent in 1990 to 3 per cent in 1995, and almost reach 7 per cent...