Chapter 1 2-15
* Introduction……………… 3
* Importance Of Project…….. 9
* Objective Of Project…….... 11
Plan of Work…………….. 13
* Data Collection…………… 17
* Data Analysis…………….. 19
* Inference ……………….. 21
* Limitation of Study………… 23
* Reference………………... 23
* Acknowledgement ………… 23
A pine plantation in the United States. Tree plantations are usually easily distinguished from natural forests by the trees being planted in straight lines.
A plantation is a long artificially established forest, farm or estate, where crops are grown for sale, often in distant markets rather than for local on-site consumption. The term plantation is informal and not precisely defined. Crops grown on plantations include fast-growing trees (often conifers), cotton, coffee, tobacco, sugar cane,sisal, some oil seeds (notably oil palms) and rubber trees. Farms that produce alfalfa, Lespedeza, clover, and other forage crops are usually not called plantations. The term "plantation" has usually not included largeorchards (except for banana plantations), but does include the planting of trees for lumber. A plantation is always a monoculture over a large area and does not include extensive naturally occurring stands of plants that have economic value. Because of its large size, a plantation takes advantage of economies of scale.Protectionist policies and natural comparative advantage have contributed to determining where plantations have been located. Among the earliest examples of plantations were the latifundia of the Roman Empire, which produced large quantities of wine and olive oil for export. Plantation agriculture grew rapidly with the increase in international trade and the development of a worldwide economy that followed the expansion of European colonial empires. Like every economic activity, it has changed over time. Earlier forms of plantation agriculture were associated with large disparities of wealth and income, foreign ownership and political influence, and exploitative social systems such asindentured labor and slavery.
Satellite photograph of deforestation in progress in the Tierras Bajas project in eastern Bolivia.
Deforestation, clearance or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a nonforest use. Examples of deforestation include conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use. About half of the world's original forests had been destroyed by 2011, the majority during the previous 50 years. Since 1990 half of the world's rain forests have been destroyed. More than half of the animal and plant species in the world live in tropical forests. The term deforestation is often misused to describe any activity where all trees in an area are removed. However intemperate climates, the removal of all trees in an area in conformance with sustainable forestry practices—is correctly described asregeneration harvest. In temperate mesic climates, natural regeneration of forest stands often will not occur in the absence of disturbance, whether natural or anthropogenic. Furthermore, biodiversity after regeneration harvest often mimics that found after natural disturbance, including biodiversity loss after naturally occurring rainforest destruction. Deforestation occurs for many reasons: trees are cut down to be used or sold as fuel (sometimes in the form of charcoal) or timber, while cleared land is used as pasture for livestock, plantations of commodities, and settlements. The removal of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in damage tohabitat, biodiversity loss...
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