Treaty of Versailles, Analytical Essay
What is the treaty?
In June 28, 1919, met in the Palace of Versailles and signed a peace treaty which when into force on January 10 officially ending the Great War. Leaders from key ally countries such France, Great Britain, Italy and the United States (US) took part, imposing punitive measure on the scapegoat central power, Germany. Woodrow Wilson and a group of handpicked representatives on behalf of the US attended to negotiate their terms to be enlisted in the peace treaty. Wilson enlisted 14 points on how to balance the peace treaty. These included points such as France and Italy to regain territories lost during the war. The Articleregarding the formation of the League of Nations,became the bone of contention for the US congress when it came to the ratification of the treaty. From Wilson’s point of view everything seemed to go according to plan, until he sort support of congress. Congress voted down the treaty. Although there was resistance from the congress, the President’s inability or lack of will to compromise played a major role (say who was at fault in a categorical manner) in the demise of the treaty.This essay will analyze facts that would prove Woodrow Wilson unwillingness to compromise, naivety and stubbornness led to the defeat of the peace treaty. On July 10 1919, President Woodrow Wilson made a very shaky presentation (state source) maybe due to the strains of a small stroke on the treaty to congress. His demeanour and tone showed he thought it was a fait accompli. He declared that approval was the only option
“The stage is set, the destined disclosed. It has come about by no plan of our conceiving, but by the hand of God. We cannot turn back”.
The treaty, needed 2/3 vote from congress to be fully ratified, and could never attain this number given that the Republican had a majority and Wilson’s personal and political foe, Henry Cabot Lodge representing Massachusetts was Chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee. (not the reason it couldn’t pass....) More lobbying should have taken place before the presentation by the President. In 1919 there were a total of 98 in senate. After the first presentation,the treaty of Versailles had 39 votes for and 55 votes against, 23 votes short of ratification. There were also a total of 13 irreconcilables (define... who were these and what did they stand for? Their composition...), who were absolutely against the ratification of the treaty, by all means. Wilson's worsening medical condition, including a major stroke the following October, robbed him of the resiliency that had brought significant legislative victories earlier in his presidency. Refusing to agree to the "reservations" subject to full ratification necessary to gain vital support from moderate Republicans, Wilson suffered major defeats as the Senate rejected the treaty in November and again the following March. Democrats (wrong! Not all!!!! What number were in favour and what against? How many democrats belonged to the irreconcilables?) were in favour of the immediate ratification of the treaty, and supported the views Wilson had on creating the League of Nations. The republicans on the other hand were against the ratification as the treaty clearly (clearly ???? is that your opinion or that of the opponents? if the violation was that clear then) violated constitutional rights. Article 1, section 8, of the constituently rights, states that congress shall have the power to declare war. By ratifying this treaty of Versailles as presented by Woodrow Wilson, the League of Nations will take over the power to send America into war. The sketch in document (E) is a clear caricature that shows Woodrow Wilson about to get married or dedicated to foreign entanglements, (are you submitting attachments/ pictures with this passage?) when the US senate objects on grounds that they are breaking constitutional rights. A number of republicans were not absolutely against all...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document