Styles, Followers’ Positive
and Negative Emotions, and
Performance in German
Jens Rowold, Anette Rohmann
Although the transformational-transactional leadership paradigm has received increased attention from the research community over the past two decades, the nonproﬁt sector has been largely neglected. This study provides information about the effectiveness of transformational and transactional leadership styles in the domain of German nonprofit orchestras, while
exploring the role of emotions within these leadership styles. We examined musicians’ perceptions of their orchestra conductors’ leadership behaviors and related those behaviors to performance. Positive emotions were associated with both transactional and transformational leadership. Negative emotions partially mediated the inﬂuence of transformational leadership on performance. In combination, the results allow a more thorough and detailed understanding of effective leadership behavior in nonproﬁt organizations.
We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of P. Mehlich and A. Papenhoff in data collection and thank Kathrin Staufenbiehl, Liv Harding, Roger A. Lohmann, and three anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments. Translated and reproduced by special permission of the publisher, Mind Garden, Inc., Redwood City, CA 94061 (www.mindgarden.com), from Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire for Research by Bernhard M. Bass and Bruce J. Avolio. Copyright 1995, 2000 by Bernhard M. Bass and Bruce J. Avolio. All rights reserved. Further reproduction is prohibited without the publisher’s written consent. NONPROFIT MANAGEMENT & LEADERSHIP, vol. 20, no. 1, Fall 2009 © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI: 10.1002/nml.240
LTHOUGH RECENT RESEARCH contributes to our understanding
of leadership in nonproﬁt organizations, the process by which leaders motivate followers to perform well remains largely
unknown. Do certain leadership styles activate positive emotions and prevent negative ones in followers? Are these emotions related differentially to followers’ performance? This study extends previous applied research by exploring the effectiveness of leadership styles, and their relationships to followers’ emotions, in German nonproﬁt orchestras. Based on arguments derived from theory, a model including these constructs was developed and tested empirically. We start by providing the theoretical background of transactional and transformational leadership. Next, a model of the leadership process is derived and several hypotheses proposed. Basically the model describes how emotions partially mediate the relationship between different leadership styles and performance. Drawing on an empirical sample, we test this model. The results have implications for theory and practice.
Over the past two decades, research scholars have increasingly investigated transformational leadership (Antonakis and House, 2002). First articulated by Burns (1978), the idea that leadership behaviors can be categorized as transformational or transactional was elaborated by Bass and Avolio (Bass and Avolio, 1994; Avolio and Bass, 2002, 2004). In transformational leadership, leaders elicit greater motivation and positive emotions from their followers by creating and representing an inspiring vision of the future (Bass, 1997). In contrast, transactional leadership relies on a set of clearly defined exchanges between leader and follower.
Several meta-analyses have provided evidence of a positive relationship between transformational leadership and both subjective and objective outcome criteria (Fuller, Patterson, Hester, and Stringer, 1996; Judge and Piccolo, 2004;...