Managing and Leading in Sport

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1.0Introduction

Part of Managing and Leading for Sports Performance Module is to complete an Assessment relating to the following task:

“Tasked with Managing and Leading an inner city East London project designed to help develop local children who are gifted and talented in a range of sports”.

The children are part of a group of youngsters where some are from dysfunctional backgrounds and some are from affluent families. Some of these children have behavioral problems, authority and respect issues, however all the children in the group have a talent for sports performance, and therefore if their skills are enhanced they could be successful.

The group is made up children of different ages, a mixer of both girls and boys, different social economic, ethnic and cultural backgrounds.

With the right leadership, each and every individual can be honed to become a successful athlete.



2.0Critical Analyses of different approaches to Management & Leadership

In this modern era, the right management and leadership skills are key when determining the success of an athlete.

There are many approaches to management and leadership that can be used for athletes/youngsters to achieve full potential; trait approach, functional approach, leadership as a behavioral category, contingency models of leadership, power & leadership influence, transactional leadership and transformational leadership.

With the right management and leadership approach, individual performances can be improved in order to become successful athletes. As tasked with managing and leading the East London Project two approaches have been selected to ensure each individual reaches full potential; transactional leadership and transformational leadership. The reasoning behind this is that transformational leadership can be used mainly with some of the youngsters from East London that come from dysfunctional backgrounds, where many have attitude and respect issues. Transformational leadership would influence major changes in the attitudes of members and build commitment for major changes (Yukl, 1989). Transactional leadership can be used mainly with youngsters from affluent families with stable backgrounds, as transactional leadership has been found to be more appropriate to relatively stable conditions in the performance environment, in which management by exception can prove functional (Bass, 1990).

Each of these approaches also allows the use of techniques that other approaches would not allow. For example studies have shown trait leadership is highly criticized as being “too simplistic” (Conger & Kanugo, 1998) and unsuccessful (House & Aditva, 1997).

Transactional leadership simply involves pre-set transactions (explicit requirements and conditions) between coach and the athletes in an effort to improve performance (Bass, 1990) where athletes must fulfill the requirements (Bromley & Kirscher-Bromley, 2007). Transformational leadership, however, is the type of leadership that enables a coach to inspire and transform athletes in order to improve performance (Bass, 1990).
Contingent reward is one of three dimensions of transactional leadership. This is where the coach sets the expectation of the athlete through constructive transactions and then establishes rewards for fulfilling those expectations (Bass, 1990). An example of such a reward may be selection for the district team.

The second dimension is management by exception (active), which is important as the coach looks for mistakes and suggests corrective actions, providing an opportunity to directly interact with the athlete and enhance the chances of getting the best out of the individual (Rowold, 2006).

Management by exception can also be passive (3rd dimension) not just active, where the coach intervenes only if standards are not met (Bass, 1990).

The difference between management by exception (active) and management by exception (passive) is...
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