Transactional Analysis (or often called TA) is a model of people and relationships.The concept was developed by Dr. Eric Berne during the 1960s . It is based on two notions: first that we all have three parts or 'ego-states' to our 'personality. The other assumption is that these converse with one another in 'transactions' (hence the name). Transactional analysis,is a psychoanalytic theory of psychology.
Ego States-Parent, Adult and Child
We each have internal models of parents, children and also adults, and we play these roles with one another in our relationships. We even do it with ourselves, in our internal conversations.
1. There are two forms of Parent we can play.
2. The Nurturing Parent is caring and concerned and often may appear as a mother-figure (though men can play it too). They seek to keep the Child safe and offer unconditional love, calming them when they are troubled. 3. The Controlling (or Critical) Parent, on the other hand, tries to make the Child do as the parent wants them to do, perhaps transferring values or beliefs or helping the Child to understand and live in society. They may also have negative intent, using the Child as a whipping-boy or worse. 4. The Parent is like a tape recorder. It is a collection of pre-recorded , pre-judged, prejudiced codes for living. 5. When a person is in the Parent ego state he thinks,
feels and behaves like one of his parents or someone who
took their place. One ego state can dominate a person to the exclusion of the other two. 6. An example of this is the excluding Parent,
which happens when a person is unable to use their Child
or Adult. This person is at a great disadvantage because
in order to be a well-functioning human being, all the ego states must be available when needed.
7. An excluding or fixated Parent might be Mr. Peake, a history teacher: 8. "I am a good history teacher. I enjoy telling my students how the world has become what it is now and what to
anticipate in the future. I keep an orderly, well-organized class and the children respect me for it. I really like the kids in my classes, but I don't think they like me-and I
don't know what to do about it. People don't seem to
appreciate quality anymore.”
9. Mr. Peake has to live without the benefit of his Child or Adult and is therefore cut off from two thirds of his
10. Mr. Peake has a Nurturing Parent, but he only feels safe to express it with his five year old nephew and his cats. In his classroom his Critical Parent excludes all other
1. The Adult in us is the 'grown up' rational person who talks reasonably and assertively, neither trying to control nor reacting. The Adult is comfortable with themselves and is, for many of us, our 'ideal self'. 2. The Adult is a human computer. It operates
on data fed into it which it stores or uses to make
computations according to a logic-based program.
3. The Adult has no emotions. People who hear this and who
think that the Adult is supposed to be the best ego state may conclude that emotions are not good. But it only
means that in order to be logical we need to be able to
separate ourselves from our emotions. It doesn't mean
that to be logical is the best way to be at all times.
4. Sometimes the Adult uses information which has its source in the Child or in the Parent and which may be incorrect. This is known as contamination. When a contamination comes from the Parent it is called a prejudice. 5. For instance, Dr. Needlepoint is a nuclear physicist who is looking for a lab assistant who can do very exacting, painstaking work with valuable equipment. In reviewing is applicants, he automatically disqualifies a black person because he believes black people are innately emotional and slow-moving, skillful with their whole...
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