The word totalitarianism was first used by the Italian philosopher, Giovanni Gentile to describe a socio-political system (Pleuger). Totalitarianism is a form of government in which all of society resources are monopolized by the state, entering all aspects of public and private life, through the states use of propaganda, terror, and technology(Grobman). Totalitarian societies are very distinct, organized, and controlled usually by one man who directs the whole economy and unities it under a single belief. Totalitarian societies seek to establish complete political, social, and cultural control. There are many types of Totalitarian governments that can be seen through political history. The most common forms of Totalitarianism are Nazism and Fascism which are “right wing” and Communism that is “left wing” and are usually led by charismatic and strong figure heads. Left wing types of Totalitarian governments are individuals and groups who desire to reform or overthrow the established order and advocate change in the name of greater freedom or well-being of the common man. Right wing types of Totalitarian governments are the opposite and are individuals or groups who profess opposition to change in the established order and who favor traditional attitudes and practices, and who sometimes advocate the forced establishment of an authoritarian political order (Grobman). Totalitarianism spread throughout the European continent and created Fascist Italy, Nazi Germany, and the Communist Soviet Union or U.S.S.R in Russia that would forever change government and policies.
Totalitarianism is form of government in which all societal resources are monopolized by the state in an effort to penetrate and control all aspects of public and private life, through the state's use of propaganda, terror, and technology. Fascism is a philosophy or system of government that advocates or exercises a dictatorship of the extreme right, typically through the merging of state and business leadership, together with an ideology of belligerent nationalism. Italy is one of the famous totalitarian countries that had first developed. There were many reasons Italy became a totalitarian state. Italian citizens were discontent with Italy's democratic government because after World War I Italy did not receive any land rewards that had been promised and made the democratic government look weak. After World War I Italy’s trades and industries suffered and the democratic government could not solve e post-war unemployment and inflation problems (Grobman).Fascism was an authoritarian political movement developed in Italy after 1919 as a reaction against the political and social changes brought by World War I, the spread of socialism, and communism. Fascism comes from the word fasces, an ancient Roman symbol of authority consisting of a bundle of rods and an ax. Italian fascism was founded in Milan on March 23, 1919, by Benito Mussolini who would become a famous revolutionary socialist leader (Totalitarianism). Benito Mussolini was born in 1883 in Romagna, Italy. His father, Alessandro, was a blacksmith and his mother, Rosa was a school teacher. In his youth, Mussolini did not make much achievement in education (Benito Mussolini). Mussolini’s rise to power includes being Appointed editor of socialist newspaper Avanti!, founding the Fascist movement in 1919, the Fascist March on Rome in October 1922 which afterward Mussolini was named Prime Minister of Italy by King Victor Emmanuel III. From 1925 to 1926 Mussolini dissolved all other political parties that were non-Fascist parties, silenced the press, instilled propaganda and secret police to secure his power. From 1922 to 1945 Italian’s were under the rule of Mussolini and Italy was a fascist totalitarian state till his death (Ernst). Benito Mussolini and his Fascist followers gained support were able to take power for many reasons. The original government had been disliked by Italian citizens before World War I,...
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