Toddlers: Nutrition and Energy Intake

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NP20003 Nutrition through the Lifecyle
Question 3: Toddlers – must address issues regarding choice and influence of parental food habits on the food habits of this age group.

INTRODUCTION
This study is focus on the dietary intake of a toddler. A toddler is a child with a range of age between 1 to 3 years old. Toddlers have the most rapid change on their physical characteristic during this phase. Most of the toddler’s diet is influence by their parents. To conduct this study, 9 toddlers became a respondent which consist of 7 boys and 2 girls. They came from 4 different places which are Kelantan, Pahang, Sabah and Sarawak. We are using 3 days dietary record to know their food intake. We have recorded all the data in Statistic Package for a Social Science (SPSS) to make comparison and using DietPlus to analyse the nutrient content of the food intake. Early childhood is a critical time for the development of food preferences and eating patterns. The development of eating behaviors is a complex process involving physiological and psychological underpinnings. Factors that influence dietary intakes and nutritional status of toddlers include food preferences, food availability, parental modeling and praise or reward for food consumption. (Stang, 2006) Parents should know how to achieve nutritional needs of toddlers and the potential impacts of early food preferences and eating habits over the long term. Because family’s food choices influence what foods are offered to children. (Kay et al, 2004)

Results
T-test
Table 1: Mean of energy intake according to gender.
Group Statistics|
| Sex| N| Mean| Std. Deviation| Std. Error Mean|
energy_avg| Male| 7| 736.4571| 162.36762| 61.36919|
| Female| 2| 1689.5067| 1516.28207| 1072.17333|

p < 0.05 therefore, there is a significant different in dietary intake among toddlers in every day diet. Recommended energy intake for female is 910 kcal and 980 kcal for male.In conclusion, female respondent take greater energy intake with 1689.5067 kcal compared to male respondent 736.4571 kcal which less than recommended. Mean calculation

Table 3: Mean of body weight according to gender of toddlers Sex| Mean| Std. Deviation| N|
Female| 12.4000| 6.22254| 2|
Male| 11.2500| 2.68685| 7|
Total| 11.5056| 3.24215| 9|

Based on Malaysian RNI, standard body weight for female toddler is 11kg and male toddler is 12kg. Based on our respondent, there is a slight different with weight recommended. Average male respondents weight have slightly less than recommended and vice versa towards female respondents.

Pearson correlation
Table 4: Correlation between weight and energy intake Correlations|
| weight| energy_avg|
weight| Pearson Correlation| 1| .661|
| Sig. (2-tailed)| | .052|
| N| 9| 9|
energy_avg| Pearson Correlation| .661| 1|
| Sig. (2-tailed)| .052| |
| N| 9| 9|

There is strong correlation between weight of the toddlers with the energy intake but there is no significant different because p>0.05. Table 5: Correlation between weight and carbohydrate intake

Correlations|
| weight| carb_avg|
Weight| Pearson Correlation| 1| .901**|
| Sig. (2-tailed)| | .001|
| N| 9| 9|
carb_avg| Pearson Correlation| .901**| 1|
| Sig. (2-tailed)| .001| |
| N| 9| 9|
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).|

There is strong correlation between carbohydrate intake and weight of the toddlers. There is also a significant different because p<0.05. Table 6: Correlation between weight and fat intake
Correlations|
| Weight| fat_avg|
weight| Pearson Correlation| 1| .788*|
| Sig. (2-tailed)| | .012|
| N| 9| 9|
fat_avg| Pearson Correlation| .788*| 1|
| Sig. (2-tailed)| .012| |
| N| 9| 9|
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).|

There is strong correlation between fat...
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