In analysing the changing marketing environment for the Tobacco industry, we look at the micro and macro-environments impacting on this industry. The micro-environment consists of the forces close to the organisation that affect the customers; the organisation, suppliers, intermediaries, customers, competitors, and the public. The macro-environment involves the societal forces that impact on the micro-environment; demographic, economic, natural, technological, political, and cultural.
Smoking rates vary over the different socio-economic levels in society. Education levels show trends in smoking rates with people having obtained higher education levels being less likely to smoke than others with a lesser education. Current smoking rates reflect that smoking is more prevalent in blue collar workers than in white collar. (Tobacco in Australia: Facts and Issues. 1998.) Our population is becoming more educated and the rising numbers of educated people pose a threat to the present and future marketing activities of the tobacco industry. (Fig. 1)
Present statistics show that “Rates of current smoking were highest in young adults. In males, prevalence of current smoking peaked at 34.7% in the 25-34 years age group…… In females, the highest rate of current smoking (27.4%) was reported in the 16-24 years age group.”(Smoking prevalence in NSW in 2002 – NSW Health Survey 2006) (Fig. 2) The young adults group however is presently declining due to the reduced fertility of the 1970’s and the tobacco industry can not rely on increasing the market size in order to increase sales. (Kotler et al. 2006, 85) The population is aging with a new generation emerging that are more educated and health conscious, Generation Y and Tweens are the future of consumers. The tobacco industry cannot market anywhere near as effectively to these generations as they could to the previous, due to the impact of micro and macro-environmental forces, and in theory, less consumers will begin smoking. With the past generation of consumers growing older and fading out, the tobacco industry is facing serious marketing problems in the future as they begin to deal with a more critical, more highly educated generation of consumers, less likely to begin using their product.
The western economy has grown strongly over the last twenty years and this has been reflected in the lifestyles and attitudes of society. Income distribution is a factor that can affect the tobacco industry in two ways. With prosperity comes education and educated people are less likely to consume tobacco products. However they also have the ability to buy more commodities. GST is a factor that affects the current and future marketing activities of the tobacco industry, as an increase in the sale price of tobacco products reduces consumption.
Only requiring a moist warm environment to grow, tobacco crops are farmed globally. Natural factors will always affect the tobacco industry. Weather can affect the quantity of tobacco produced as well as the quality of tobacco crops, affecting the price that farmers can obtain for their produce.
As a result of increases in farm wages impacting on the tobacco industry, technological changes are occurring with an increase of labour-saving devices. Machines such as harvesting devices...