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- deals with the dynamics of heat and the conversion of heat to work. (car engines. Refrigerators, etc) - first law of thermodynamics heat added to a closed system goes into the internal energy of the system and/or doing work - H= delta E1 + W

- a heat engine takes heat from a high temperature reservoir, converts some to useful work and rejects the remainder to the low temp reservoir. - Second law of thermodynamics
- It is impossible for heat to flow spontaneously from a cooler body to a hotter body - No heat engine operating in a cycle can concert all thermal energy into work. (100% thermal efficiency is impossible) - Third law of thermodynamics

- It is impossible to attain a temperature of absolute zero - Absolute zero is the lower limit of temperature
- The work input transfers heat form a low- temperature reservoir to a high temperature reservoir - In many ways it is the opposite of a heat engine
- the change in entropy indicates whether or not a process can take place naturally - entropy is associated with the second law
- entropy is a measure of the disorder of a system
- most natural processes lead to an increase in disorder (entropy increases) - energy must be expended to decrease entropy
- since heat naturally flows from high to low, the entire universe should eventually cool down to a final common temperature Important Equations:
- Tk= Tc + 273 ( Celsius to Kelvin)
- Tc= Tk- 273 ( Kelvin to Celsius)
- Tf= 1.8Tc +32 (Celsius to Fahrenheit)
- Tc= Tf- 32/ 1.8 ( Fahrenheit to Celsius)
- H= mcdeltaT (specific heat)
- H= mL (latent heat)
- P a NT/V
- (P2/P1)= (V1/V2) ( T2/T2)
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