Go to the content page or to your books and read on the Roman Culture- Chapter 6. Make short notes on each of the topics below. Pay special attention to the terms included under the topics..
1. Hellenistic Empires
Phillip of Macedonia - Macedonian king who was held hostage in Greece, spent several years there, then returned to conquer it all. He was making ready to invade Persia when he was assassinated. His son, Alexander, finished the job and went a little bit further.
Alexander the Great - Macedonian general whose conquests equaled the majority of the known world. He defeated the great Persian emperor Darius twice, in humiliating fashion, then took over the Persian Empire. He was welcomed as a conquering hero in Egypt, which he ruled by acclimation from his new capital of Alexandria. He led his troops thousands of miles from him, into the wilds of India. In the process, he brought Greek culture to the rest of the world. This was his lasting achievement. He achieved all this in less than 20 years. In fact, he died at age 33.
Zeno - originally named Tarasis, was Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Emperor from 474 to 475 and again from 476 to 491. Domestic revolts and religious dissension plagued his reign, which nevertheless succeeded to some extent in foreign issues. His reign saw the end of the Western Roman Empire under Julius Nepos and Romulus Augustus, but he contributed much to stabilizing the eastern Empire.
Stoicism- The Stoic God - was a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early 3rd century BC. The Stoics considered destructive emotions to be the result of errors in judgment, and that a sage, or person of "moral and intellectual perfection," would not suffer such emotions..
Epicureanism-Epicurus- Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of Epicurus, founded around 307 BC. Epicurus was an atomic materialist, following in the steps of Democritus. His determinism led him to a general attack on superstition and divine intervention. Following Aristippus—about whom very little is known—Epicurus believed that the greatest good was to seek modest pleasures in order to attain a state of tranquility (ataraxia) and freedom from fear, as well as absence of bodily pain (aponia) through knowledge of the workings of the world and the limits of one's desires.
2. The Rise of the Republic.
Plebians - The plebeians were the lower class. Nicknamed "plebs", the plebeians included everyone in ancient Rome (except for the nobility, the patricians) from well-to-do tradesmen all the way down to the very poor.
Patricians - The patricians were the upper class, the nobility and wealthy land owners.
Dictator - the dictator (“one who dictates”), was an extraordinary magistrate (magistratus extraordinarius) with the absolute authority to perform tasks beyond the authority of the ordinary magistrate (magistratus ordinarius).The office of dictator was a legal innovation originally named Magister Populi (Master of the People), i.e. Master of the Citizen Army.
Centuriate - the democratic assembly of Roman soldiers. During the years of the Roman Republic, citizens were organized on the basis of Centuries for military purposes. The Centuries gathered into the Century Assembly for legislative, electoral, and judicial purposes. The majority of votes in any Century decided how that Century voted. Each Century received one vote, regardless of how many electors each Century held. Once a majority of Centuries voted in the same way on a given measure, the voting ended, and the matter was decided
Tribal Assembly - of the Roman Republic was the democratic assembly of Roman citizens. During the years of the Roman Republic, citizens were organized on the basis of thirty-five Tribes: Four Tribes (the "Urban Tribes") encompassed citizens inside the city of Rome, while the other thirty-one Tribes (the "Rural Tribes") encompassed...