oPolybius: Greek historian born in Arcadia c. 200 BCE. He was the son of the Calvary Commander of the Achaean League, and a close friend of commander Scipio Aemilianus. Polybius wrote The Histories- a work which describes the rise of the Republic of Rome and its eventual domination of Greece. oMago Brettius: Gave a speech on the Carthaginians and the errors they made when surrendering oHamilcar Phameas: Carthagian Calvary Commander
oMassanissa: Numidian King who repeatedly encroached on Carthagian territory. oHasdrubal: Carthaginian general who lost the 3rd Punic War to Scipio Aemilianus at the Siege of Carthage in 146 BCE. oGulussa: Massanissa’s son, ascended to the throne following Massanissa’s death oScipio Aemilianus: As Consul, he commanded the final siege of Carthage in 146 BCE •Key Events:
oUltimatum between Rome and Carthage
oGreece debates over the cause, the conduct, and the justification of the war oHasdrubal encouters Scipio and makes it clear that he is only looking out for his own safety oScipio conquers Carthage
oThe Carthaginians had to make a choice. There was "a choice of two evils only left, to accept war with courage or to surrender their independence." oThere was a great schism between the onlookers of the war: “The opinions expressed in regard to the Carthaginians were widely divided, and indicated entirely opposite views.” oThe last two books emphasize the flaws of Hasdrubal. His vanity and self-involvement lead to his city’s destruction oScipio’s speech reveals his fear of Rome.
o Polybius explains how he wrote his narrative and his beliefs on how historians should record history in the introduction to Book XXXVI of The Histories. After introducing his narrative Polybius begins to explain the Third Punic War through accounts of each side’s actions, significant speeches, and his own observations. oCarthage...