There Are Many Forms of Crime Prevention and Crime Reduction. Explore Two Such Strategies and Illustrate with Practical Examples

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There are many forms of crime prevention and crime reduction. Explore two such strategies and illustrate with practical examples.

Background
Crime prevention has been in existence since the nineteenth century. It is linked with the period marking the emergence of the modern state. During this period the community handles it own crime preventative measure but it was hard to sustain it. However, they perceived a belief that the criminal justice system could prevent crime alone and propaganda to the effect of their ability to do this were an important element in their legitimation. The optimism of the late – 1950s, that the system could be tailored to control crime, initially, gave way to crisis management, as measures such as the suspended sentence, parole and community service were designed to take some pressure off our bulging prisons, and latterly melted into a pessimism that “nothing works” (Gilling, 1997). It was against this transformation that crime prevention started to gain grounds. In 1960, Home Secretary established the Cornish Committee on crime prevention and in 1963; Home office’s National Crime Prevention Centre at Strafford for training purposes was established. The Cornish Committee reported officially in 1965 and in the report focus on the role of the police and the wider society in the prevention of crime. It also `suggested the appointment of specialist crime prevention officers and department. The Cornish Committee also suggested the establishment of crime prevention panel as a means of maintaining/ building relationships between the police and other organisations like; corporate body ,voluntary organisations and statutory services to enable the panel to identify local crime problems and play a role in the prevention of crime. ( Newburn, 2007). The Cornish Committee had grasped the central significance of unfocused crime prevention and the notion of collaboration. Home office report pointed out that the prevention of crime in terms of blocking opportunities depended on people taking measures to protect themselves and their property from potential offenders. During the 1980s the attention moved from purely situational crime approach to a combination of situational and social crime prevention initiatives. In 1980 a report by Home Office working Group on crime prevention were presented stating that crime prevention should follow a methodology that was problem- oriented rather than practice-oriented. The police beca me more considerate to the idea of partnership in crime prevention. A Home Office circular released in 1984 was described some years later by commentator as ‘the most comprehensive statement of British policy on crime prevention’. This circular stated the traditional role of the police in the prevention of crime, also outline the potential contribution of other agencies in the prevention of crime since some factors affecting crime is positioned outside the control of the police. What crime prevention

Crime prevention seeks to reduce the risk of crime occurring in a community by influencing their cause and preventing future occurrence. In most cases, crime prevention is always applied where people are not involved in crime but they may be at risk in the future. Crime prevention considers people (Those who are not involved in criminal activities and tries to prevent them from getting into criminal activities). It also looks at places and situation that have not been troubled by criminal activities and tries to abate such places and from criminal activities occurring. (Criminal Justices Reform). Gilling (1997) states that: ‘ crime prevention incorporates not only the practice of the entire criminal justice system, but also those of many other social and public policies, as well as those of private citizens and private enterprise’. National Crime Prevention Institution (1986) in the USA, distinguishes between direct crime prevention control, which is proactively addressing opportunities...
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