American Military University
CMRJ302 U.S. Law Enforcement
This paper will discuss community policing and its effectiveness throughout the United States, to include the development of community policing; the essential components of community policing, how community policing principles and methods are used, and how prevalent community policing is through the United States. Community policing is an effective model that can reduce crime while allowing the police to form partnerships with citizens and communities. The communities that have embraced community policing enjoy good relationships with the police and have lower crime rates than areas that have only traditional policing methods in place.
The Effectiveness of Community Policing
Community policing as a model gained momentum in 1994, when Congress passed a Crime Bill that allotted $11 billion dollars to law enforcement agencies all over the United States in order to pay for 100,000 new officers, so that the model of community policing could take hold in the United States (Gaines & Kappeler, 2008). As community policing grew within the United States, police departments wrangled with how to implement the principles that encompassed community policing, such as the philosophic dimension, the strategic dimension, and the programmatic dimension of community policing. All dimensions are necessary in order to have effective community policing; when partnered with citizen participation in the crime prevention process, community policing becomes a powerful method of crime prevention and crime suppression. Citizens work closely with the police, and both sides get to know each other personally. Community policing has proven to be effective method of policing that engages the community to help solve the problem of crime. Defining Community Policing
Community policing can be confusing when it comes to defining what it exactly is, since community policing means one thing to one person, and something else to another; this includes police chiefs and administrators in charge of making decisions on whether or not to implement community policing, at what level, and in what neighborhoods. No department seems to do community policing exactly as another department does. Community policing, broadly defined, involves the inclusion of community members-citizens-in the strategic process of policing an area. Community policing requires that departments take a multi-faceted approach to policing overall (Clark, 2005). This involves the police mission changing from enforcing the law to that of maintaining order and working on establishing positive ties with the communities that the police are serving. According to the United States Department of Justice Community Oriented Policing Services, community policing consists of three parts. Community partnerships develop between police, individuals, and organizations: Transforming the police organization into one that has a community-policing mission rather than a traditional policing mission. Problem solving using the scanning, analysis, response, and assessment, or SARA model is essential for community policing to be successful (United States Department of Justice, 2009). Working with the citizenry is crucial to the modified police mission. Without citizen involvement, community policing would fail. Citizen’s involvement is the driving force behind community policing, since citizens are the ones that will report the crimes, provide intelligence to the officers, participate in neighborhood watch programs, and generally welcome the police into their communities as positive members of the community (Gaines, et.al. 2008). Community Involvement: Partnerships between Police and Citizens
Community oriented policing has at its heart the concept of forming partnerships with other agencies, individual citizens, community organizations, businesses, local news media, and anyone else interested in...