August 8, 2012
1. Theory: Psychoanalytical Theory
a. Key Concepts
i. There is a focus on unconscious psychodynamics.
ii. Individuals pay attention to repressed information. iii. In therapy, the therapist and client work to build the ego to moderate ID and superego. iv. The client works on establishing transference. He/she will tell the counselor what has caused the difficulties and the therapist and counselor work through it. v. The client and therapist explore the client’s past. vi. There is a focus on specific influences during the developmental years and how those influences influence his or her current behavior. b. Key Theorists
vii. Sigmund Freud was the founding father of the Psychoanalytical Theory. After working with patients suffering from mental illness, he believed childhood experiences and unconscious wants influence behaviors. viii. Many of Freud’s students helped expand his theory. A few of those students were Alfred Adler, Erik Erikson, Carl Jung, and Anna Freud (Cherry, 2012). c. Appropriate Populations for the Theory
ix. Those who would benefit from psychoanalysis are people who are generally satisfied with aspects of his or her life; however, these individuals suffer from distress due to anxiety, depression, isolation, and/or sexual difficulties. These individuals need help with self-awareness in order to achieve a more favorable life ("Psychoanalysis",n.d.). x. Children can also benefit from psychoanalysis. Therapy involves drawings and fantasy play. d. Inappropriate Populations for the Theory
xi. Individuals who are suicidal or homicidal are not candidates for psychoanalysis. Moreover, individuals with an increase in emotional distress are not candidates as well ("Psychoanalysis",n.d.). e. Therapist’s Role
xii. The role of the therapist is to assist the client develop transference. xiii. The therapist helps the clients decipher unresolved issues from his or her past. xiv. The therapist will aid the client with the acclimation of work demands, intimacy, and socially. f. Client’s Role
xv. The client must be willing to engage in talk therapy. g. Theory Strengths
xvi. Psychoanalysis opened the eyes of professionals to the benefits of talk therapy. xvii. Most of the theories of personality are still influencing professionals today. h. Theory Limitations
xviii. This form of therapy can increase distress for some individuals i. Key Terms
xix. Case study- the study of an individual. In case studies, every aspect of a client’s life and history is analyzed. xx. Conscious- everything inside our awareness.
xxi. Defense mechanism- A way the mind protects against feelings or thoughts that are difficult to deal with. xxii. Ego- prevents us from acting on our urges.
xxiii. Id- this is made up of unconscious psychic energy and helps please the basic urges and needs. xxiv. Superego- helps balance the ego and the id.
xxv. Unconscious- believed to influence our behavior even though we are unaware of it. This unconscious houses certain feelings and thoughts. j. Is this theory researched based? Evidenced based?
xxvi. The psychoanalytical theory is evidenced based because Freud based all of findings on his case studies. k. Special training requirements
xxvii. Psychoanalysts attend classes in psychoanalytical therapy and technique. They undergo an analysis and they perform analysis on patients while under supervision. xxviii. The training is extremely intensive.
2. Theory: Jungian Theory
l. Key Concepts
xxix. The key concept of Jung’s theory is the psyche. The psyche includes the conscious, the...