Describe How Current Counselling and Psychotherapy Practices Emerged from Psychiatry and Psychology.

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Discuss how current counselling and psychotherapy practice emerged from psychiatry and psychology. Use critical evaluation of theoretical evidence to support discussion points. 2, Analyse the similarities and differences between psychotherapy and counselling practices using evidence, aims and objectives relevant to practice and therapeutic need.

Counselling and psychotherapy are very different areas of speciality than psychiatry or psychology. Yet it is from these two health practices that counselling and psychotherapy practice emerged. The emergence and beginning of this takes us back initially to 1887, when the specialism of psychotherapy emerged in psychiatry. In the nineteenth century there was a general shift towards science and capitalism, and away from religion, this impacted on peoples understanding and tolerance towards distress and mental ill health. In the early twentieth century Sigmund Freud founded/developed psychoanalysis. Around the time of the 2nd World War a number of well regarded psychoanalysts split off from Freud, and moved elsewhere, around the world, such as the UK, USA and Europe. Afterwards, a number of different influential psychotherapists developed different theories. Namely : Erickson et al developed psychoanalysis, Rogers and Maslow – humanistic therapy, Beck and Ellis – cognitive -behavioral therapy, then forward to the present day, where we have our current different therapies. Counselling and psychotherapy are very popular, accepted and sort after. It has been a relatively short journey of birth, transformation and independence. This is why there are undercurrents of similarities between all the professions.

Sigmund Freud (1856 – 1939) born in Austria, is believed to be the first founder of psychoanalysis. He originally worked as a medical doctor, but later in his career he researched neurophysiology, after which he switched to clinical practice in this area.. He and his two colleagues used hypnosis to help patients with...
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