Theory in Caring

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Leininger’s Transcultural Care Model - Assumptions
1 Care is the essence of nursing in a distinct, dominant, central, and unifying focus. 2 Care (caring) is essential for well being, health, growth, survival, and to face handicaps or death.
3 Culturally based care is the broadest holistic means to know, explain, interpret, and predict nursing care phenomena and to guide nursing decisions and actions. 4 Nursing is a transcultural humanistic and scientific care discipline and profession with the central purpose of serving individuals, groups, communities, or institutions worldwide.

5 Care (caring) is essential to curing and healing, for there can be no curing without caring. 6 Culture care concepts, meanings, expressions, patterns, processes, and structural forms of care vary transculturally with diversities (differences) and some universalities (or commonalities).

7 Every human culture has generic (lay, folk, or indigenous) care knowledge and practices and usually some professional care knowledge and practices that vary transculturally. 8 Culture care values, beliefs, and practices are influenced by and tend to be embedded in the worldview, language, philosophy, religion (and spirituality), kinship, social, political, legal, educational, economic, technological, ethnohistorical, and environmental context of cultures.

9 Beneficial, healthy, and satisfying culturally based care influences the health and well being of individuals, families, groups, and communities within their environmental context.
10 Culturally congruent or beneficial nursing care can only occur when individual, group, family, community, or institutional care values, expressions, or patterns are known and used explicitly in appropriate and meaningful ways.

11 Culture care differences and similarities between professionals and client participants exist in all human cultures worldwide.
12 Cultural conflicts, imposition practices, cultural stresses, and pain reflect the lack of professional...
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