Behavioral psychology, also known as behaviorism, is a theory of learning based upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. Conditioning occurs through interaction with the environment. According to behaviorism, behavior can be studied in a systematic and observable manner with no consideration of internal mental states. Two other assumptions of this theory are that the environment shapes behavior and that taking internal mental states such as thoughts, feelings, and emotions into consideration. Who Developed the Theory:
Behaviorist school of thought ran concurrent with the psychoanalysis movement in psychology in the 20th century. It had its earliest start with the work of a Russian physiologist named Ivan Pavlov. He published the first studies on classical conditioning in 1906. An American psychologist named John B. Watson soon became one of the strongest advocates of behaviorism. Psychologist B.F. Skinner furthered the behaviorist perspective with his concept of operant conditioning. In 1953 outlined behavioral therapy, lending support for behavioral psychology via research in the literature. Historical Perspective:
Pavlov's research on the digestive systems of dogs led to his discovery of the classical conditioning process, which demonstrated that behaviors could be learned via conditioned associations. Pavlov demonstrated that this learning process could be used to make an association between and environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus. Later Watson went on to offer a definition in his classic book Behaviorism (1924), writing: “Behaviorism holds that the subject matter of human psychology is the behavior of the human being.”Behaviorism claims that consciousness is neither a definite nor a usable concept. Psychologist B.F. Skinner concept of operant conditioning demonstrated the effect of...