Theories of Migration

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Theories of migration
Neoclassical economics-
oCost-benefit calculation
oIndividual makes the decision
oMigration stems from geographical differences in supply & demand for labor oMore $, less labor. More labor, less $ (wages)
New economics of labor migration-
oMotivations go beyond cost-benefit analysis i.e. circular migrations b/c: •Markets for goods & services may not exist. Info is scarce. Family oMigration decisions are by larger units of interrelated ppl. Ex: Mexicans diversify risks by sending family members to work in different labor markets •World systems theory-

oChanging global markets cause migration
oOwners of firms in developed countries enter poor countries for land, labor, raw materials, and markets oMigration is a natural outgrowth of disruption that occurs in the process of market and economic/political penetration •Segmented labor market theory-

oInternational migration stems from demand of unskilled labor that’s built into economic structure of developed nations oBifurcation of labor market. High paying jobs at top, low at bottom oPermanent demand for labor

1)Structural inflation- wages reflect social class → immigrant workers 2)Social constraints on motivation- always exists a bottom class. Immigrants=labor/income, no need for status 3)Duality of labor & capital- capital=fixed factor of production, can be idled but not laid off. Labor= variable factor, + → immigrants take labor jobs •Social capital theory-

oVirtual & actual resources, relationships can be translated into social & economic benefits. Each immigrant creates social capital to the ppl linked to him/her •Cumulative causation of migration: self perpetuating b/c networks & social structure
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