Non Governmental Organisations and International Non Governmental Organisations (Support base, Funding pattern and Relation with State)
It would serve well to remember at the outset what is now a well-known and widely accepted fact of social reality that, the rise of the phenomenon of development including sustainable development has brought about integration, synthesis and unity of all social sciences into a single Social Science (Seymour Martin Lipset, 1972, p.xiii-xiv). Development is also people-centered and citizen participation oriented. The institutions and structures through which people’s participation can flow into development activities can be many and varied, formal and informal, official and non-official. (Noorjahan Bawa, 1997, p-03) Though the state still continues to be the prime political unit through which the aspiration of the people of a particular territory are realized yet in modern times there is a growing desire to understand the people of other countries and co-operate with them. The technological developments have been an important factor in bringing the people together. As a result no state, however powerful, can act in isolation. To cope with this anachronistic situation statesmen have devised institution through which effective international cooperation can be ensured. These institutions were evolved through a long and continuous process, which is still on. These international institutions provide the basis for durable world order and serve as a check against war, economic chaos and social upheaval. (Quincy Wright, 1998 p-199) According to Jacob and Atherton, international organisations are in reality “associations of sovereign states. They have Governmental functions to perform, but they do not have the powers normally assumed by governments”. Professor Potter feels that the term international organization can be best used for “the aggregate of procedure and organs for expressing the unification of nations.” The present century is considered as an era of international organizations when apart from the League of Nations and the United Nations, many specialized agencies, both regional and specialized, are created. In addition scores of public international organizations, concerned with almost every conceivable aspect of international relations, hundred and thousands of private international organizations like International Red cross or the Rotary International or the International Chamber of Commerce, etc headed namely under Non-Governmental/Non-Profit Organizations have been created.(Cheever and Haviland, 1954, p-6) In terms of the sectoral Paradigm the Public (governmental), Private (business profit oriented) and voluntary (cooperatives, non-profit organizations, NGOs, Popular movements) sectors are known as first, second and third sector respectively. (Noorjahan Bawa,1997, p-04) The Conceptual Framework on NGOs
The term NGO (Non-Governmental Organization) seems to be deceptively simple. It may overlook the enormous variety and differential capabilities of NGOs. In fact, NGOs offer a kaleidoscopic collection of organisations, varying in origin, size, programmes, ideology and control. NGOs embrace a bewildering group of organization varying in terms of innumerable parameters. No standard definition can include all organizations working at present under the title NGOs. (Bibhuti Nath Jha & S.D.Mishra, 1984, p-24) The proliferation of international NGOs represented, in a sense, a post-Reagan era return of the repressed that is, the “welfare state” apparatus that Irving Kristol described as a “new class”.( I.Kristol, 1978, p-14) With expensive domestic social programs out of fashion in the Clintons administration, President Clinton declared that “the era of big government is over” ---- international NGOs could provide a growth opportunity through on ostensibly private-sector initiative that might pass Republican muster, yet preserve class privileges for...