A. Compare and contrast two of the models or theories presented in this chapter considering their usefulness in practice, research, education and administration.
For the purposes of this discussion, I have selected King’s Theory of Goal Attainment and Peplau’s Theory of Interpersonal Relations. On a broad perspective, both theories aim at explaining the interaction processes that happen between a nurse and her patient. Imogene King’s basic assumption of her theory is that the nurse and the client communicate information, set goals mutually, and act to attain those goals. The same can actually be said with Peplau’s theory wherein she states that nursing is an interpersonal process because it involves interaction between two or more individuals with a common goal, the attainment of which is achieved through the use of a series of steps, and that the nurse and patient work together so both become mature and knowledgeable in the process. A lot of similarities can be seen from both works as they try to explain the nursing process in a nurse-patient interaction level. (see fig. 1) The concepts of person, health, environment and nursing are recurring themes on both theories as they attempt to integrate it with each of their own interaction models.
The deviation between the two theories occur where the focus of their study lie in the current nursing practice. King focused on the major concept of interacting systems: Personal, interpersonal and social systems, and how the accuracy of determining which system is most applicable would lead to eventual transaction. Peplau, on the other hand, made the phases of interpersonal relationship (orientation, identification, exploitation and resolution) the focus of her study. Still, to compare the two in response to their usefulness in clinical practice would be like comparing apples to oranges – both are fruits but each with its own characteristics. Each theory has its own merits and limitations.
With respect to the usefulness of both theories to research, these two could very well go hand-in-hand - complimenting each other in the formulation of new studies concerning nurse-patient relationships amidst all of its complexities. It is important to note that Sieloff and Frey (2007) even devoted an entire chapter of their book to illustrate the value of nursing theory to guide empirical investigation of the phenomenon of early menarche. This particular study eventually led to the development and testing of a midlevel nursing theory (Theory of Asynchronous Development) derived from the synthesis of works of Imogene King and Hildegard Peplau.
|Nursing Process |Imogene King’s Theory of Goal Attainment |Hildegard Peplau’s Theory of Interpersonal Relations | |Assessment |Perception, communication and interaction of |Orientation: Non continuous data collection, felt need,| | |nurse and client |define needs | |Planning |Decision making about the goals, agree on the |Identification: Interdependent goal setting | | |means to attain the goals | | |Intervention |Transaction made |Exploitation: Patient actively seeking and drawing help| |Evaluation |Goal attained |Resolution: Occurs after other phases are completed | | | |successfully, leads to termination |
Fig. 1 Comparison of the Two Theories Using the Nursing Process
B. Using Imogene King’s theory of goal attainment, apply these concepts to a selected client.
Often times in my area of...