Use grid below to complete the Week 4-Nursing Theorists assignment. Please see the “Nursing Theorists’ Grading Criteria” document, located on the Materials page of the student Web site.
Name: Thomas Miller
Theorist Selected: Ida Orlando
Description of Theory: “Orlando’s theory is a reflective practice that is based on discovering and resolving problematic situations” (Alligood, 2010, p. 339). This theory is focused on defining the nurse-patient relationship. According to Orlando, the main function of nursing is to determine the needs of the patient and ensure that these needs are met, whether by the nurse or by others. The patient will have verbal and nonverbal behaviors that clue the nurse into the nature of his or her problems. The nurse must explore these behaviors with the patient to determine the needs that must be met to resolve the problematic situation that the patient presents with. The nurse must also be aware of his or her reactions to the cues the patient presents and must validate these reactions with the patient. It is always possible for the nurse to misinterpret the behaviors of a patient, and form incorrect ideas about what the patient needs. Validating the behaviors with the patient ensures that the nurse can fulfill the function of nursing, which is to find and meet the patient’s immediate need for help in the immediate situation which results in improvement (Alligood, 2010). The success of the help provided can be evaluated by observing for improvement in the patient’s verbal and nonverbal behavior. These behaviors must also be validated with the patient. This makes this theory dynamic and collaborative.
Theory’s Historical background: Orlando developed her theory in the 1950s after receiving grants for studies integrating mental health concepts into nursing education. This was the first inductively developed nursing theory. Orlando recorded nurse patient interactions over three years and categorized her records as “good” or “bad” nursing (Alligood, 2010). Orlando conducted a second study where she “assessed the relevance of earlier formulations, educated and evaluated nurses in the use of her formulations, and tested the validity of the theory formulations” (Alligood, 2010, p. 338). This helped her validate her original observations and to extend “her theory to include the entire nursing practice system” (Alligood, 2010, p.338).
Major theory assumptions related to:
Define according to theorist:| How does this concept relate to nursing practice?| How does this concept relate to nursing education?| PersonTo Orlando, a person is a unique individual with his or her own behaviors and perceptions that are related to the context in which those behaviors and perceptions occur. Each person has his or her own needs that must be met and these needs change depending on the context and perceptions of that person. Each person is also the only one able verify if his or her behavior means what it appears to mean. In the context of the nurse-patient relationship, a person is an individual who needs help in order to have his or her needs met. The unique patient behavior provides cues to indicate the needs that must be met.| “Improvement, according to Orlando (1990), is the goal of the nursing process” (Faust, 2002, p. 15). Because the individual is unique, each patient must be approached for validation of his or her behaviors separately. The nurse cannot make assumptions of one person’s behaviors based on what they learned from another patient with the same behaviors. It also means that “patient behavior requires assessment at the time it occurs” (Faust, 2002, p. 15). It is possible that the same behavior occurring at different times means different things. The nurse must always validate the meaning of behaviors with the patient before attempting to meet the...