The Wars of Independence in Latin America

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The Wars of Independence in Latin America

•Rebellions between 1804-1824
•Colonial govt. ended in S. America
•Haiti revolt
oled by Toussaint L'Ouverture and Jean-Jacques Dessalines
oMerchant, landowner, professional class participated (Creole elite) oNatives and blacks didn't as much
•Discontentment of Creoles
oSlave revolts in Andes, scared Creoles
oAngry w/Spanish govt.
Taxes too high
Trade limits
•Peninsulares-whites born in Spain
oGot the best positions
oHated by most
•Creoles dividing Spain
oAfraid France controlled Spain too much, to get Latin American wealth oDecided to divide Latin America into states
oEnded peninsulares' privileges
oSpain broke away, under Fernando VII
oCreoles had more privileges
•Rio de la Plata (modern Argentina)
oCentered around Buenos Aires
o1810-Spanish authority taken away, including Paraguay & Uruguay oArmies defeated
•San Martin
oLeading general of these forces
oLead Andes mountain march
o1817- occupied Santiago in Chile
o"Protector of Peru"
•Simon Bolivar
o1810-liberations in Caracas, Venezuela
oRepublican govt. & independence favored
o1811-1814 Civil War in Venezuela
Royalists vs. slaves and llaneros (Venezuelan cowboys) Exiled to Columbia then Jamaica
o1816 invasion w/Haiti of Venezuela
o1821 captured Caracas, became president
o1822 joined San Martin to liberate Quito
San Martin=monarchism, Bolivar=republicanism
San Martin went into exile in Europe
oDec. 9, 1824 Battle of Ayacucho
Spanish royalists are defeated

•Independence in New Spain
oOutcome of Latin American colonial revolution
oMiguel Hidalgo called for an Indian rebellion
Wanted social change
Had 80 thousand followers to capture cities
Executed in 1811
oMorelos was new leader
More radical
Executed in 1815
oDemand for reform in Mexico
1820 Ferdinand VII...
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