LITERATURE REVIEW: THE USE OF PROFESSIONAL ETHICS IN IT INDUSTRY
Life is full of challenges. Among the challenges in the life, one of the biggest challenges is leading a good life. One can live a good life if he or she has an ethical sense. Ethics is a branch of philosophy. It is a normative science which deals with the norms of human conduct. It is also like other sciences for maths, logic, physics and empirical science for psychology and economy which follows logical reasons. (What is ethics?, 2006). Ethics is placed at the heart of a discipline (Hugman & Smith, 1995, p. 14). During the past 30 years, much more information has become available about ethics and is considered as standards devised for humans so that they can decide to choose between right and wrong (Velasquez, Andre, Shanks & Meyer, 1987). These standards are defined by society. Rawls (1999), cited by Quinn (2005, p. 48), defines that society is group of people organized under a system of rules for the betterment of its members.
Recent study shows that ethics examines moral beliefs and behaviour of people (Quinn, 2005, p. 48). So, ethics can be said that saving the human from harm by choosing right and avoiding wrong decision. Ethics play a very important role in our daily lives. Ethics is implied in our life by making ethical decisions. Ethical decision is to choose between right and wrong using ethical principles. Ethical principles are defined as solving the problem logically by decided good based on well-reasons which are accepted by the society (Kallman & Grillo, 1996, p. 3). We often face ethical dilemmas, where we have to make ethical decision i-e we have to choose between right and wrong by treating issue ethically. Schultz (2006, p. 2) has pointed out, “Why is it important that we treat an issue as an ethical issue?. The basic idea is that issues arise because they involve conflicts between different interests that cannot be resolved on the level of interests alone”. Hence, when an ethical issue arises in any matter of our daily life whether it is personal or related to business, one must tackle the situation by making ethical decision. One should make decision by keeping the ethical standards designed by there society in mind. Kallman and Grillo (1996, p. 4) have reported in respect of ethical issue, that “Knowing the principles of ethical decision making is a cultural survival skill”. This means if a person will not solve the issue with ethical decision for his or her personal or business matter will encounter series of problems. In order to avoid such ethical dilemmas in our life, ethics is divided into many categories which relates to good and bad for every part of our life. One of category of ethics is professional ethics which is related to professions.
Professional ethics means the behaviour and practice adopted by the professional when carrying out professional work. Such works include consulting, researching, teaching, writing and etc. Professional bodies are organizations which are responsible for developing professional ethics for each profession by designation of Codes of Conduct and Codes of Practice in order to observe their member’s behaviour in professional work (Professional Ethics, 2004). To make more explicit, professional codes of conduct are the codes of ethics which professional bodies create and require their members to perform to make good decisions without harming others in their field (A Critical Guide to Corporate Codes of Conduct, 2004). This shows that for each profession, there are ethical codes which governs how services will be provided to the public. Hugman and Smith (1995, p. 3) states that ethical code has been updated from time to time and is developed in such a way for almost every profession so that it is clearly followed by every profession. Spier (2002, p. 2) and Koehn (1994, p. ix) also agrees that as world has been undergoing revolutionary changes since past 200 years, the enormous amount of...
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