The Spartan Warriors

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2 SEP 2002
OUTLINE
I. Introduction.
In society today the term "warrior" is used loosely and sometimes even associated with an athlete training for a specific event. By the fourth century B.C., Sparta designed a culture solely for training soldiers, a warrior culture. The problem with the design of a warrior culture is not in the fighting capabilities of the group, but in the lack of an artistic legacy that was lost during the life of a fighting culture. II. Body.

1. Historical Background
a.Prior to the Messenian War
b.After the Messenian War
2. Training
a.Age and Sex
b.Way of life
3. Politics
a.Women in Sparta
b.Constitution
c. Lycurgus
4. Significant Battles
a.Battle of Marathon
b. Battle of Thermopylae
c. Battle of Plataea
d.The Peloponnesian War
5. Sparta without a war
a. Shortcomings
b.Battle of Leuctra
6. Summary
III. Conclusion
The training regiments and social structure of the Spartans were geared towards building the strongest men and nation physically, but without the artistic and political training, the warriors or Sparta were unable to bring the Grecian empire together. History remembers so much from the philosophy teachings of Socrates and the Athenian paintings, dishes, and sculptures, but little is remembered about the other superpower in Greece and of the warriors of Sparta.

THE SPARTAN WARRIORS
In society today the term "warrior" is used loosely and sometimes even associated with an athlete training for a specific event. By the fifth century B.C., Sparta designed a culture solely for training soldiers, a warrior culture. The problem with the design of a warrior culture is not in the fighting capabilities of the group, but in the lack of an artistic legacy that was lost during the life of a fighting culture.

Prior to the forming of the military community of Sparta there is evidence of a society rich in culture. Archaeologists have found vase paintings depicting fish, snakes, plants, and kings. The illustrations on the dishes of Sparta showed increasing skill in drawing of human dimensions and animal characteristics. The city-state of Sparta had been formed as a cultural center that produced not only pottery but was noted for its festivals of song and dance as well. Other types of craftsmanship included wood, metalworking, weaver, and leather. The Spartan culture would soon end due to a change in the social structure that forced the city-state to form different classes within its society.

Sparta was one of the most powerful city-states in Greece and in order to increase a food supply, the Spartans turned to their bordering country Messenia. In the eighth century B.C. the Spartans conquered the Messenians and set up a new type of social system. The Messenians would work the soil to supply the Spartans with the food supply, which would leave the dominating class available for a life of military training. The Messenians outnumbered the Spartans and without a strong hold the lower-class citizens would eventually overtake them by physical force. The Spartan ruler and soldier class made up about ten percent of the total population and were actually the only citizens with rights in the country. The largest class of people was the helots and these were the forced labored individuals and were not allowed to own land. A third class of people, which were allowed to own land, was the perioiki and they performed business with the citizens of Sparta. The perioiki were responsible for work other than the cultivation of the land and were the carpenters, metal workers, builders, and painters. The Sparta citizens concentrated solely on military training and did not mix socially with the classes of the helots or perioiki. As a warrior and ruler the citizen of the Sparta was responsible to oversee the helots as well as defend the city-state's borders.

In the military community of the rulers and soldiers of Sparta there was a very strict regiment of...
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