The purpose of this essay is to critically assess current health and care policies for children in a pre-school setting and their family. It will also have reference to the bio-psycho- social model and its connection from social and psychological perspectives of children’s experience to their health and illness. It will also cover the importance of promoting optimum health and well being within the nursery for both child and parent.
To begin with some people believe that we, as humans, are complex systems and that illness is caused by a multitude of factors and not by a single causal factor (Banyard 1996 pp 29-31). This approach reflects the bio-psychosocial model of health and illness, which was developed by George Engel. He posits that this model accounted for the interconnected spectrums of biological, psychological and social factors and how they enable humans to function within the context of disease or illness (Engel 1977 pp129-136). Therefore by recognising that psychosocial factors such as, beliefs, relationships and stress can greatly impact the recovery, progression and recuperation of a person during their illness. (Sarno 1998 p 32).
Some people have emphasised that the Bio Psychosocial model has been around for centuries and that psychiatrist George Engel was not the first person to have these notions. Evidence by Ibrahim B. Syed (2002 p2-9) has found that the application of the model was being used in ancient Asian 2600 B.C. and Greek 500 B.C. civilizations and still to this day the novelty, acceptance and practice of the bio psychosocial model varies across cultures.
To understand the aspects of the Bio psychosocial model is to simply break it down...
“BIO- (biological) is the somatic vulnerability or susceptibility to a disease such as allergies and how these can affect each of us individually”. Santrock (2007 p63)
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