The Roy Adaptation Model

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The Roy Adaptation Model
Ella Linden
POINT LOMA UNIVERSITY

The Roy Adaptation Model
Sister Callista Roy proposed the Roy Adaptation Model. The person or group responds to stimuli from internal or external environment through control processes or coping mechanisms identified as the regulator and cognator (stabilizer and innovator for the group) subsystems. The regulator processes are essentially automatic, while the cognator processes involve perception, learning, judgment, and emotion. The results of the processing by these coping mechanisms are behaviors in one of four modes. These modes are the psychological-physical mode (oxygenation; nutrition; elimination; activity and rest; protection; senses; fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance; and endocrine function for individuals and recourse adequacy for groups), self -concept-group identity mode, role function mode, and interdependence mode. These behaviors may be either adaptive (promoting the integrity of human system) or ineffective (not promoting such integrity). The nurses assesses the behaviors in each of the modes and identifies those adaptive behaviors that need support and those ineffective behaviors that required intervention. For each of these behaviors, the nurse then seeks to identify the associated stimuli. The stimulus most directly associated with the behavior is the focal stimulus; all other stimuli that are verified as influencing the behavior are contextual stimuli. Any stimuli that may be influencing the behavior but that have not been verified as doing so are residual stimuli. Once the stimuli are identified, the nurse, in cooperation with patient, plans and carries out interventions to alter stimuli and support adaptive behaviors. The effectiveness of the action taken is evaluating, pg. 27 (George, 2011)

Primary elements of theory:
Major Concepts
* Adaptation -- goal of nursing
* Person -- adaptive system
* Environment -- stimuli
* Health -- outcome of adaptation
* Nursing- promoting adaptation and health
Adaptation
* Responding positively to environmental changes.
* The process and outcome of individuals and groups who use conscious awareness, self reflection and choice to create human and environmental integration Person
* Bio-psycho-social being in constant interaction with a changing environment * Uses innate and acquired mechanisms to adapt
* An adaptive system described as a whole comprised of parts * Functions as a unity for some purpose
* Includes people as individuals or in groups-families, organizations, communities, and society as a whole. Environment
* Focal - internal or external and immediately confronting the person * Contextual- all stimuli present in the situation that contribute to effect of focal stimulus * Residual-a factor whose effects in the current situation are unclear * All conditions, circumstances, and influences surrounding and affecting the development and behavior of persons and groups with particular consideration of mutuality of person and earth resources, including focal, contextual and residual stimuli Health

* Inevitable dimension of person's life
* Represented by a health-illness continuum
* A state and a process of being and becoming integrated and whole Nursing
* To promote adaptation in the four adaptive modes
* To promote adaptation for individuals and groups in the four adaptive modes, thus contributing to health, quality of life, and dying with dignity by assessing behaviors and factors that influence adaptive abilities and by intervening to enhance environmental interactions

Subsystems
* Cognator subsystem — A major coping process involving 4 cognitive-emotive channels: perceptual and information processing, learning, judgment and emotion. * Regulator subsystem — a basic type of adaptive process that responds automatically through neural, chemical, and endocrine...
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