2. Magnum Cartum Liberatum.
3. Simon de Monfort and his “Parliamentum”.
4. King Edward’s Parliament.
5. Parliament nowadays.
a). The Functions of Parliament.
b). The Meeting of Parliament.
c). The House of Lords.
d). The House of Commons.
e). Public Access to Parliamentary Proceedings.
I am always interested in the history of Great Britain and especially in the developing of the British Parliament. It plays the leading role in the political life of Great Britain. It passes laws, provides the means of carrying work of the government, scrutinizes government policy and administration, including proposals for expenditure; debates the major issues of the day. In my wok I try to look at the history of this undoubtedly important body of authority. The events that took place in England in the XIII century turned out to be the main influence on the formation and the rise of Parliament that exists to the very moment.
THE GREAT CHARTER - MAGNA CARTA
Richard I’s absence in the Holy Land and the expense of crusade the weakened power of the Crown in England. When his brother John became a king, he lacked the money to defend the English lands in France successfully. The meanness and cruelty of his character added to his unpopularity stimulated a heavy disapproval from the point of the Church; the power then belonged to Pope Innocent III. As a result in 1215 on June 15 the army of the Holy Pope supported by barons and led by the citizens of London came up to the capital. The Church and the barons had their own, certain intentions. Innocent III wanted the Church to be absolutely independent from the English government and the barons didn’t want to pay any taxes and wanted to have various privileges.
On the 15 of June in 1215 the united army of Innocent III and leading barons forced John Lackland to make peace with his enemies on the Island of Runnymade in the Thames*. In the Great Charter or Magna Carta Liberatum, which he sealed there, he promised to keep the Church free and unharmed. He also tried to please the townsmen by granting safe conduct to any foreign merchant visiting England. The most important points that the king agreed to were: …the English Church shall be free and shall have its rights undiminished, and its liberties unimpaired. …No scutage or aid (taxes) shall be demanded in our realm without the consent of the great council; …No freeman shall be arrested, put in prison, or lose his property, or be outlawed or banished, or harmed in any way…unless he has been judged by his equals under the law of the land. Justice will not be sold to anyone, nor will it be refused or delayed… After King John had sealed the charter it became the tradition to sign this document by further kings, when receiving the crown, which was abandoned only in 150 years.
The Magna Carta even in later times has been used to prove that in England the subject has certain rights against the government which cannot touch him or his property unless the law allows it. However, in King John’s time these rights only belonged to those of the rank of freeman or above. The villains and serfs who far outnumbered them were not so fortunate.
Nevertheless the importance of the document is almost inconceivable as in 1297 on the first Parliament meeting Magna Carta obtained the recognition of the first statute of the British constitution.
After the king’s death caused by next rebellion in 1216 his son, the heir, Henry III (1216-1272) became the leader of the Holy Land. During his long reign the barons continued their struggle to make the king obey the terms of the Great Charter. No external wars took place.
SIMON DE MONFORT AND HIS “PARLIAMENTUM”
One of the riots that took place in the period of...