The Rise and Fall of the Shang Dynasty

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Two major elements in European culture
a. Greco-Roman element
b. Judeo-Christian element
Division One
Greek Culture and Roman Culture
Ⅰ. Greek Culture
Why should we study the Ancient Greeks?
The Greek culture is an origin of western culture
Greek culture has made to western society in the areas of art, literature, philosophy, drama, architecture and politics, astronomy It shape today's western culture with notions of democracy and personal freedom The most important reason to study the Greeks is for the opportunity to take small glimpses of history related to them, and try to better understand our humanity 1. The Historical context

a. Greek history began about 1200B.C.
  At that time, a war was fought between Greece and Troy. Armed Greek invaders hid themselves inside a large wooden horse. As the horse was brought into the Troy, the soldiers attacked and seized control. This war ended in the destruction of Troy. Maybe, Greek history began at that time. b. The High point of development of Greek Culture: the 5th century B.C. the successful repulse of the Persian invasion early in the century The Persian Wars began in 490 BC, and the Greek forces were superior and crushed the invasion at Marathon. In 480 BC, the Persians launched a second attack . This time, Persians sacked and ruined Athens. The Greeks later won a decisive military victory at Salamis, they defeated the Persian naval fleet c. the Greek history flourished again in the second half of the 4th century B.C. In this time, Greece was ruled by Alexander, the king of Macedon. His armies went out to conquer large areas of Europe, Asia and Africa, spreading Greek culture wherever they found themselves. d. the Greek history was broken again

Alexander King died. The Roman conquered Greece in 146 B. C. In 197 BC, King Philip V lost to Roman forces in the war. The Roman military campaign overtook the Greek warriors, and Rome tried to incorporate Greek culture within its objects 2. Its social and political structures

A. Democracy (social)
Athens was a democratic country.
It means “all people are equal and all people have freedom” “all people” in the Greece meant only the adult male citizens and citizenship was a set of rights which a man inherited from his father. Women, children, foreigners and slaves were excluded. In other words, they had no rights. It is ironic that the Greek culture is given so much credit for ideas of democracy, because times of democracy seldom existed in Ancient Greece. B. Greek regions ruled by a council and a king. (political)

Their political structure was unstable because the kings often acted like tyrants to the citizens. The Aristocratic people, mostly landowners, served on the council. Many citizens were not fairly represented in this system. This caused tension, and in many cases political uprisings. C. the Economy in Athens

Depending on an immense amount of slave labor. These slavers worked on farms and in workshops and mines owned by their masters. In Greek society, there was harsh exploitation. 3. Homer
c. His works:
A. The Iliad (伊利亚特 )
B. The Odyssey.(奥德赛 )
b. Main lyrical poets are Sappho and Pindar
5. Drama
a. in the early period, the play was performed at religious festivals b. The real drama developed in the 5th century B.C.
d. Three tragic dramatists
1) Aeschylus (about 525—456 B.C.) 埃斯库罗斯
A. He is a tragic dramatist
B. His works:
Prometheus bound Persians
Agamemnon (The king of Mycenae and leader of the Greeks in the Trojan War) 阿伽门农:迈锡尼的国王,特洛伊战争中的希腊联军统帅 C. These plays only includes two actors and a chorus
D. His theme is about the heroes and heroines in completely human situations, there is no escape but death E. His play are written in verse (poem)
F. He is well known for his vivid character portrayal and majestic poetry 2) Sophocles (about 496—406 B.C.)索福克勒斯
A. He is also a tragic dramatist
B. His works:
Oedipus the King
(A son of...
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