Contrary to the Middle Ages, when the afterlife and glorifying God was the primary focus, the Renaissance concentrated increasingly on the present day, demonstrating a more secular philosophy. Humanism developed, making human beings, and not God, the center of attention. People not longer considered their lives solely as a preparation for the afterlife, but instead gave them actual value. The church's authority fused with that of the state, resulting in a monopolized power greatly influenced by religion. The rejection of the secular spirit of the Italian Renaissance can be seen in the varying art themes of the Reformation. The Reformation rejected the secular spirit that had developed during the Italian Renaissance and replaced it with a more religiously obedient, strict lifestyle.
The development of humanism during the Italian Renaissance prompted people to focus more on the present day and their interests outside of the church. The arts, including music, fine arts, and architecture all flourished. People of the Reformation, however, dedicated themselves entirely to Protestantism. The Protestant faith was not only a religion, but a way of life. The free and critical thinking that was encouraged during the Italian Renaissance became more restricted as people focused increasingly on work and obedience. Protestants disapproved of the secularism and indulgences of the Italian Renaissance. They esteemed to establish a more pious, faith driven society. People were encouraged to work hard and devote themselves entirely to their vocation, regardless of their social class. Although religion remained dominant during the Italian Renaissance, people discovered more, and broadened their horizons separate from the Church whereas Protestantism promoted a constant connection to faith.
Hard work and total devotion to God were the main principles of the Protestantism. It was believed that each individual has a personal connection to God through their beliefs, and...
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