1) Briefly explain the evolution of microprocessor based on IC fabrication technology clock frequency & instruction cycle.
2) Explain Moore’s law.
3) What do you understand by instruction set?
4) Define following key wordy respective to digital system design.
(a) Synthesis(b) Specification
(c) Analysis(d) Implementation
5) What is dynamic static instruction briefly explain.
6) Define processor performance.
7) How can you estimate processor performance using Iron law?
8) How can you optimize processor performance?
9) Briefly explain prototype model for processor performance evaluation.
10) Briefly explain simulation based processor performance evaluation method.
11) What is instruction level parallel processing?
12) How pipeline processing increase the performance of a processor.
13) How can you estimate the performance of a parallel processor?
14) What is processor level parallelism?
15) What are the limitations of instruction level parallelism?
16) Briefly explain all the classification of ILP machine.
17) What is super scalar machine?
18) Distinguish between super scales & very long instruction word machine.
(1)Briefly explain the evolution of microprocessor based on IC fabrication technology clock frequency & instruction cycle? The first microprocessor, the Intel 4004, was introduced in 1971. The 4004 was a 4-bit processor consisting of approximately 2300 transistors with a clock frequency of just over 100 kilohertz (kHz). Its primary application was for building calculators. The year 2001 marks the thirtieth anniversary of the birth of microprocessors.
The amazing decades of the evolution of microprocessors
| |1970-1980 |1990-2000 |000-2010 |2000-2010 | |Transistor count |2K-100K |100K-1M |1M-100M |100M-2B | |Clock frequency |0.1-3 MHz |3-30 MHz |30MHz-lGHz |1-15 GHz | |Instructions/cycle |0.1 |0.1-0.9 |0.9-1.9 |1.9-2.9 |
(3) What do you understand by instruction set?
Critical to an instruction set processor is the instruction set architecture, which specifies the functionality that must be implemented by the instruction set processor. The ISA plays several crucial roles in instruction set processor design.
(4) Define following key wordy respective to digital system design. [pic]
Fig: - Engineering Design.
Specification: the specification is in the form state machine descriptions that include the specification of the state variables as well as the output and next state functions. Synthesis: Synthesis is the more creative task that searches for possible solutions and performs various tradeoffs and design optimizations to arrive at the best solution. Implementation: The implementation is the actual hardware design described using a hardware description language HDL can range from logic gates and flip-flops, to more complex modules, such as decoders and multiplexers, to entire functional modules, such as adders and multipliers. Analysis: Analysis examines an implementation to determine whether and how well it meets the specification.
(5) What is dynamic static instruction briefly explain.
We have discussed two critical roles played by the ISA. First, it provides a contract between the software and the hardware, which facilitates the independent development of programs and machines. Second, an ISA serves as the specification for microprocessor design. All implementations must meet the requirements and support the functionality specified in the ISA. In addition to these two critical roles, each ISA has a third role. Inherent in the definition of every ISA is an assoc acted...