THE ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR
Definition: Martyn Walker calls it the “civil war of the human race” about the balance of global power, with an ideological element. It was the indirect conflict between the USA and USSR that went on from 1945-1991. And it was expressed in everything from an arms and space race to chess tournaments - and even ice hockey matches.
The Long-Term Reasons
Many regard the Cold War as having roots going back decades before the end of WWII in 1945.
Both sides did things that made the other mistrust them from the period 1917-1945.
The Cold War has often been seen as an ideological struggle between two mutually incompatible systems: capitalism and communism. Though this is a vast over-simplification, ideology did play a role. Ambrose and Brinkley certainly see its significance: “ideology cannot be ignored. Men like Truman, Harriman and Kennan were appalled by Russian brutality and Communist denial of the basic Western freedoms”.
Note-Taking Exercise On ‘The Cold War – Beyond Ideology’ By Gregory Slysz
Read the article and makes notes on the following longer-term reasons for the Cold War. Remember you must summarise as clearly and concisely as possible the arguments employed by the various historians mentioned.
1. What is Slysz’s basic argument?
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. What is John Gaddis’ view on when the Cold War began?
______________________________________________________________ 3. Give two actions by Stalin that suggest he was a ‘tricky customer’ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. What does John Lukacs basically say about Stalin’s attitude towards ideology? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. What do Donaldson and Nogee argue was Stalin’s approach? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. What is Richard Pipes’ argument about Stalin?
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. What did Suvorov and Weeks controversially argue about Stalin’s foreign policy? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. What does Martin van Creveld suggest Stalin was always planning to do? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. What ‘glue’ disappeared to make the Wartime ‘Grand Alliance’ collapse? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. What arguments are there that ideology did not always play a major role, in Cold War actions and alliances? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. What six reasons does Slysz ultimately give for the Cold War coming about?
___________________________ ______________________________ ___________________________ ______________________________ ___________________________ ______________________________ The Wartime Conferences – Yalta & Potsdam, 1945
During 1941, the US president, Franklin D. _______ and the British Prime Minister, Winston _______, met on a battleship in the middle of the Atlantic and decided what type of world they were fighting for. This was known as the Atlantic Charter. However, their democratic, free-trade views...
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