The rurality-modernity encounter in village India is taking place under the canopy of parliamentary democracy which the consembly adopted, in preference to Gandhian advocacy of Panchayat-based self-government, but its isocratic architecture tilts the power-balance towards the villages which seem to have defied the global mega-trend of ‘developmental de-ruralization’.
The British colonialism is the vital player in the history of India’s modernity and globalization. Modernity is thought with the nation state, bureaucracy, advanced and liberal economy. Transformation into a global economy and values comes thereafter. The unique features of India; multiculturalism, multi ethnicism, multi religion system helped India to became a global player for sure. In this essay I will be arguing that there is an obvious relationship between modernity and globalization when the example of India is taken into consideration both historically, from the days of British colonialism till today, especially from 1980s’ economic liberalization. Having a strong bureaucracy and being an established democracy helped out the India to turn into a modern society. The intelligence technology (IT) expansion turned India to both a global market and player. The classical modernity theory “increases the credence given to status of education or other merit based achievements while it reduces the credence given to birth status”. However, not all the segments of the society benefited from the modernization and the globalization of India at the same all, while some segments went better off continuously, the others were deprived.
In today’s world, it is almost impossible not to hear the name of India with China in terms of economic growth. But the main question India’s modernity and its role in the global economy. India is a “multi-cultural, multi-ethnic society with a vibrant democracy and a free press and readily exposes to shortcomings.” The ultimate question is whether being the “gateway of globalization will bring real progress and modernity to India. While India has some characteristics of modernism one can not yet call India modern. Modernity is not just Westernization” (Wells, D. H, (2003). I believe, in order to argue the relationship between the modernity and globalization in India, we should start from the British colonialism, since the heritage of colonialism, influenced, even structured the Indian modernity. At the beginning of 17th century, the East Indian Company was established as a trade organization and the aim was not to build a new regime in India. (Kitchen, 1996) However by the end of the 17th century Britain expanded more and more, and India became really significant for the British economy. From that time, Britain was in a confusion due to their despotic colonial power in India while promoting Western ideals. The main question was: how could a country “with liberal traditions and deeply held convictions about personal liberty maintain an authoritarian empire which ultimately rests on force?” (Vohra, 2001). From that time, Britain brought the western ideals and institutions to India.
From the beginning of 19th century, British schools were established in India, and graduating from those schools meant admission to the state institutions, and emphasized some sense of power and elitism. Hence, in general British education system both produced a elite class and “a vast class of semi-educated, low paid and English speaking subordinate class” (Vohra, 2001). Further, the missionaries brought Christianity and its morals to Indian society as well. Moreover, there has been the caste system which structured the society in main groups and which were totally hierarchical. Finally, the British colonial powers established the bureaucracy in India.
From the independence of India in 1950, India continued to be a democracy and benefited the infrastructure of British colonial legacy....