The Influence of Family and Peers

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Discuss and analyze the impact of peers and school in middle childhood. Provide specific illustrative examples of how peers and school positively and negatively influence the development of children in the pre-adolescent years. Discuss the role of the family in children's adjustment (psychosocial and academic domains). Peers become progressively more significant in middle childhood. ” School-age children, in contrast, are painfully aware of their classmates’ opinions, judgments, and accomplishments” (Berger, 2012). Children concerns about acceptance within different peer groups come to terms in middle childhood. Friendships are important for social development because children learn more from children their own age than they learn from their parents. Parents demand order and respect and in retrospect are much older than the child. “Friendships become more intense and intimate as social cognition and effortful control advance” (Berger, 2012). The social apprehensions of middle aged children often focus on the common needs of acceptance by peers and avoidance of rejection, nevertheless, being rejected due to culture and popularity are seen throughout middle childhood. “Whether in the form of teasing, bullying, exclusion, or isolation due to lack of friendships, virtually all children experience peer rejection from time to time” (Blacher & Eisenhower, 2004). In society, during middle childhood, children are accepted and popular if they are athletic, cool, outspoken, and dominant. Children dealing with rejection by peers experienced depression, society anxiety, and low self-esteem. Coping mechanisms include “behavioral strategies like ignoring those kids and acting like nothing is going on, and just trying to forget about it” (Blacher & Eisenhower, 2004). Bullying is defined as “repeated, systematic attacks intended to harm those who are unable or unlikely to defend themselves” (Berger, 2012). Bullying occurs everywhere such as schools and...
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