· There are three types of financial management decisions: Capital budgeting, Capital structure, and Working capital management.
· Capital budgeting is the process of planning and managing a firm's long-term investments. The key to capital budgeting is size, timing, and risk of future cash flows is the essence of capital budgeting. For example, yesterday I received a call from our manager over our Sand & Gravel Operations. He is looking into buying a new crusher (to crush stone into gravel and sand). I helped him today evaluate the return on investment for this opportunity. It quite a lot of work, but we determined that buying the new crusher would bring in 60,000 more tons of production/sales within the 1st year of owning the machine.
· Capital Structure refers to the specific mixture of long-term debt and equity the firm uses to finance its operations. There are two main questions when looking at the capital structure - 1) How much $ do we need to borrow to buy this long-term asset? 2) What are the least expensive sources of funds for the firm? For example, since we are thinking of buying this new crusher, we need to decide how we are going to afford this new machine. In this example, we determined that if we cut back a little bit on labor and in other areas, we would be able to afford the new machine. In regards to where the money will come from, we do not take out loans to buy long-term assets. We borrow from our company, and repay overtime.
· Working Capital Management refers to a firm's short-term assets, such as inventory, and its short-term liabilities, such as money owed to suppliers. This is more of an everyday activity. For example, we just converted to a new ticketing system at work. One of the issues we had is how to handle cash sales... [continues]
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