The Effects of Credit Management on the Profitability of Manufacturing Companies in Nigeria (a Case Study of Guiness Nigeria Plc

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Introduction
The expansion of International Trade and the accessibility to foreign stock and debt market has given rise to an increase debate on whether or not there is need to be a global set of accounting standards. As companies compete globally for scarce resources, investors and creditors as well as multinational companies are required to bear the cost of reconciling financial statements that are prepared using national standards. It was argued that a common set of practices will provide a “level playing field” for all companies worldwide (Murphy, 2000). IFRS are standards and interpretations adopted by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). They include: International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), International Accounting Standards (IAS) and interpretation originated by the International Reporting Standards Interpretation Committee (IFRSIC) (Oyedele, 2011). IFRS represent a single set of high quality, globally accepted accounting standards that can enhance comparability of financial reporting across the globe. This increased comparability of financial information could result in better investment decisions and ensure a more optimal allocation of resources across the global economy (Jacob and Madu, 2009). Cai and Wong (2010) posited that having a single set of internationally acceptable financial reporting standards will eliminate the need for restatement of financial statements, yet ensure accounting diversity among countries, thus facilitating cross-border movement of capital and greater integration of the global financial markets.

History and Development of IFRS
Globalization of capital markets is an irreversible process because of the development and growth in science and technology; there are many potential benefits to be gained from mutually recognized and respected international accounting standards. To bridge the gap between accounting standards among countries, the International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC) was founded in 1973 by a group of professional accounting practitioners. The IASC was to formulate uniform and global accounting standards aimed at reducing the discrepancies in international accounting principles and reporting practices. In this light, the International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC) was established. Since its establishment the IASC has actively been championing the uniformity and standardization of accounting principles for over two decades (Carlson, 1997). In April 2001, the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) took over the setting of International Accounting Standards from the International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC). Thenceforth, the IASB updated the already existing International Accounting Standards and referred to them as International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). Many of the standards forming part of IFRS are known by the older name of International Accounting Standards (IAS). IASs were issued between 1973 and 2001 by the Board of the International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC). In Nigeria, adoption of IFRS was launched in September 2010, by the Honorable Minister, Federal Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Senator Jubril Martins-kuye (OFR). The adoption was organized such that all stakeholders use the IFRS by January 2014. The adoption was scheduled to start with Public Listed Entities and Significant Public Interest Entities who are expected to adopt the IFRS by January 2012. All Other Public Interest Entities are expected to mandatorily adopt the IFRS for statutory purposes by January 2013, and Small and Medium-sized Entities shall mandatorily adopt IFRS by January 2014. The Importance of IFRS

The adoption of uniform standards cut the costs of doing business across borders by reducing the need for supplementary information. They make information more comparable, thereby enhancing evaluation and analysis by users of financial statements (Adekoye, 2011). Users become more confident of the...
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