The causes of three non-communicable diseases in developing countries and recommendations for preventions
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are gradually becoming the leading cause of deaths in developing nations as they have been in the developed world for several decades, threatening an increasing amount of people in many low and middle income countries. A prediction from the National Center of Biotechnology Information (2005) suggests that if this trend continues, NCDs will result in 80 percent of the global burden of disease, bringing about seven out of every ten deaths in poor areas. Obviously there exists an urgent demand to dig the relevant causes of such issues out in order to control this dramatic trend when the problems are still emerging in many developing countries. It will be strongly argued here that these diseases result from a number of factors involving various facets in daily life such as diet and outside activities and are preventable if more emphasis and attention can be put on the severe situation that humans are facing. Three kinds of diseases which are considered to have the major effects will be examined: cardiovascular diseases, cancer and obesity. In the following assignment, the causes will be analyzed to show how different behaviors contribute to NCDs in developing countries before recommendations are given.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), one of the main elements of NCDs, account for a seriously increasing number of deaths and patients in almost every area of the world. Though it is visible that CVDs result from a number of factors which involve various aspects of patients’ daily lives, the major two elements for these diseases chiefly relate to behavior and lifestyle (WHO, 2012). Behavioral factors, which have been proven to have the most vital influence on CVDs, are responsible for almost 80% of these issues and are largely composed of different kinds of unhealthy individual habits such as poor diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, high intake of salt and the abuse of alcohol (ibid.). In detail, the poor diet and the lack of exercise at the same time raise not only blood pressure, glucose and lipids, but also the rate of overweight and obesity (ibid.), which again contribute to the incidence rate of CVDs in the long run.
Apart from behavior factors, psychological and objective factors synchronously act important roles in the pathogenesis of CVDs. It is stated by WSO, WHO and WHF (2011) that sufficient and convincing evidence has been provided to prove that psychosocial factors contribute significantly to cardiovascular diseases in several specific aspects. Depression and chronic life stress, which exert a great impact on the pathogenesis of these diseases among low and middle income countries since modern society is intensely competitive and people are generally under great pressure. In addition, there are also a number of objective factors which are (to be) treated as underlying and potentially threatening. It is suggested by WHO (2012) that it is globalization, urbanization, and population ageing that are driving many changes. Significant economic progress of some developing countries promises a sufficiently boosted growth of urbanization. As a part of this process, the population of urban areas has greatly increased and thus led to a decline in physical fitness. For example, it is more likely for people to take a bus or drive instead of walking or cycling as they did several decades ago. Apart from this, citizens’ health is also severely affected by the vehicle exhaust as well because of the deficiency of policies creating conducive environment for people to make healthy choices and adopt beneficial lifestyle.
As CVDs are increasingly prevalent in the developing world, cancer is standing on the same critical line. Recently, cancer once considered to be a major health problem only in developed countries is quietly becoming a noticeable cause of death in a massive number of...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document