The Cause and Effect Essay (Report)

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Philippine Normal University
National Center for Teacher Education
College of Languages, Linguistics and Literature
Department of English

In partial fulfilment of the course requirement in
Teaching Writing

Submitted by:
Constantino, Jen Marini M.
Darasin, Eunice C.
III-9 BSE English

Submitted to:
Prof. Ali Anudin

February 8, 2013
CAUSE AND EFFECT ESSAY
Definition

Cause and effect essay explores why things happen (cause) and what happens as a result (effects). This essay gives reasons and explanations for behaviors, events, or circumstances.

*Cause – a reason for an action or condition

*Effect – a result or outcome

* Causal chain / Domino effect - is a chain formed of a cause producing a situation and this situation producing another situation and so on.

Importance

(1) To be able to understand or describe phenomena at a deep level.

(2) To make important decisions.

Cause and effect essay work in one of three ways:

1. They analyze the ways in which several effects result from a particular cause. (‘Focus-on-Effects” Method) Ex. Because you didn’t study, you failed the final exam, failed your Government class, were short credits, and were not able to graduate.

2. They analyze the ways in which several causes result from a particular effect. (‘Focus-on-Causes” Method) Ex. Air pollution is caused by the following factors: exhaust gases from cars, uncontrolled factory releases, and burning of low quality coal for heating.

3. They analyze the chain of causes and effects between some events. (Causal chain / Domino Effect)

Ex. Using deodorants with chlorofluorocarbon gas will bring the end of world. Chlorofluorocarbon gases are contained in most deodorants and released by some factories into the air. This gas causes the ozone layer to become thinner and finally disappear in patches. The unfiltered ultraviolet rays of the sun cause overheating in the poles of the earth, where the icebergs start to melt. The huge amount of water released from the poles leads to a rise in the sea-level. The sea will cover the land and this will be the end of the world.

Structure of cause and effect essay

I. Introduction
The introduction will introduce the reader to the main theme of discussion with a thesis statement which identified the primary chain of causes and the resultant effects.

II. Body
The topic sentences of the body paragraphs of your cause and effect essay should be well connected to the thesis for your cause and effect essay and must relate to it closely. 

III. Conclusion

The thesis statement should be reiterated in the conclusion following which students should provide their opinion about the link between causes and their good or bad effects. It sums up the discussion through pointing out logical observations that were made.

A. Structuring the Cause Essay

I. Introduction

· Provide thesis, basis for causal chain, and identify effect or effects; the key question is, what caused this?

II. Body

· Discuss various links in the causal chain, either tracing it backwards from effect to first cause, or beginning with the first cause.

· Use transitions to ANALYZE the process rather than simply providing what amounts to a glorified play-by play narration (also known as process)

· Present the causes chronologically and without missing links.

III. Conclusion

· Return to thesis, then speculate on possible first causes to right a bad effect or possible other causes that might have destroyed or otherwise altered the good effect.

B. Structuring the Effects Essay

I. Introduction

· Provide thesis and basis for effects, describe primary cause;...
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