The Black Abalone: an Invertebrate Report

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The Black Abalone
An Invertebrate Report
Biology – BIOL1000

The black abalone or Haliotis cracherodii as it is known from its genus species designation is a large, edible sea snail. The shell coloring on the outside is a dark blue or green or black, and the interior is a pearly iridescent colour. The shell shape is spiraled and very smooth. It uses a muscular foot to adhere itself to rock bases, and is fairly nocturnal for its own protection. It is lives along the coast of California down to parts of Mexico. On January 14, 2009, the black abalone was put on the Endangered Species List. It is a dying species because of human involvement and is greatly affected by a disease known as Withering Syndrome. Table of Contents

Abstract --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- page 2 Table of Contents ---------------------------------------------------------------------- page 3 Introduction ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- page 4 General Description ------------------------------------------------------------------ page 5 Taxonomy ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- page 6 Anatomy ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- page 6 Life Cycle and Reproduction ------------------------------------------------------- page 7 Habitat/Range ------------------------------------------------------------------------- page 8 Diet ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- page 9 An Endangered Species? ------------------------------------------------------------ page 9 Factors of Decline -------------------------------------------------------------------- page 9 Withering Syndrome ----------------------------------------------------------------- page 11 Human Uses --------------------------------------------------------------------------- page 12 Protection Plans ----------------------------------------------------------------------- page 12 Conclusion ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- page 13 References ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- page 14 The Black Abalone: An Invertebrate Report

Our class was asked to choose an invertebrate to study independently and report back our findings. To give a little bit of background information, the animal kingdom is divided up into vertebrates (animals with a backbone) and invertebrates (animals lacking a backbone). The invertebrates make up for 95% of the animal kingdom and are found pretty much everywhere in the world. There are numerous different types of invertebrates including sponges, nematodes, arthropods, and molluscs. The invertebrate I have chosen to study, the black abalone, falls under the mollusc category, and for the purposes of my research I’m going to provide a general definition about molluscs and then later in the report go more into specifics in regards to the black abalone. Molluscs by textbook definition are soft bodied animals characterized by a muscular foot, mantle and radula, which is their version of an arm used to catch food. Molluscs are divided into three categories: gastropods (snails and slugs), bivales (clams, oysters and scallops), and cephalopods (squids and octopuses). The black abalone falls under the gastropod grouping as it is protected by a single shell that is spiraled in shape, and the abalone can retreat within itself if there is danger. In this report I will discuss various characteristics of the black abalone including a general description of it, its taxonomy, its anatomy, its life cycle and reproduction, its habitat, its diet, how it is now an endangered species and the various factors that affected its population decline, and what we people are doing now to investigate and protect it from going extinct. General...