American Intercontinental University
This assignment discusses the relationships between reproduction, heredity and DNA.
Genetics – From Genes to Proteins, Mutations
During transcription, the information in the DNA of a specific gene is copied into mRNA (messenger RNA), which creates a nucleotide sequence. After transcription, if the DNA base sequence is 3’-TACCCTTTAGTAGCCACT-5’, then the base sequence of mRNA would be 5'-AUGGGAAAUCAUCGGUGA-3’. During translation, Ribosomal RNA combines with proteins to form a ribosome. tRNA (transfer RNA) brings individual amino acids to the ribosome, mRNA binds the ribosome. 3 nucleotides at a time equal 1 codon or an amino acid. Therefore the resulting amino acid sequence from the previous mRNA is AUG, GGA, AAU, CAU, CGG, UGA = Methionine, Glycine, Asparagine, Hisitdine, Proline, Stop. The first codon of the sequence (AUG), is the start of the sequence. The significance of this codon is that it symbolizes where the mRNA should start copying. The last codon of the sequence (UGA) is the end of the sequence or mostly known as "Stop". This symbolizes where the mRNA should stop copying. In mutation, the information in the DNA base sequence is changed, thus leading to a mistake in DNA replication. 2 examples of mutations and the chance in the amino acid sequence are as follows: 1. 3’-TACGCTTTAGTAGCCATT-5' = AUG, (CGA), AAU, CAU, CGG, (UAA) = Methionone, Arginine, Asparagine, Histidine, Proline, Stop 2. 3’-TAACCTTTACTAGGCACT-5' = (AUU), CGA, AAU, (GAU), (CCG), UAA = Isoleucine, Arginine, Asparagine, Histidine, Proline, Stop A change or mutation in the amino acid sequence may cause the protein to not carry out its function in the cell. If the wrong amino acid is present in the sequence, a malfunction can take place, such as sickle cell anemia. Inheritance of Traits or Genetic Disorders
Bob and Sally is a newlywed couple that is both heterozygous for...