Urbanization is caused in poor countries by people wanting to move to from a rural area to a city to have running water, electricity, and jobs. What is bad is that most of the cities that have had urbanization are surrounded by run down areas that have people living in shacks. In Africa, one significant feature of the urbanization process is unlike Asia and Europe, mainly that much of the growth is taking place in the absence of significant industrial expansion. “In Africa, the urbanization processes are largely driven by market forces and government policies that lead to simultaneous processes of change in livelihoods, land use, health and natural resources management including water, soil and forests and often reactive changes in local governance” (Nsiah-Gyabaah, n.d.). Until the 1960s most of Africa’s population had lived in rural areas. In the 1960s Africa had only an urban population of approximately 19%. “The rapid process of urbanisation (sic) has become a hindrance to development in Africa due to inadequate provision of facilities for the needs of urban residents, thereby exerting pressure on the environment”, (Boadi, K. et al, 2004). The pressure on the environment that is caused by the urbanization is very detrimental. There is waste pollution, insufficient water supply, and parasitic diseases.
Boadi, K., Kuitunen, M., Raheem, K., Hanninen, K. (October 2004). Environment, Development and Sustainability. Dordrecht: Dec 2005. Vol. 7, Iss. 4; p. 465. Retrieved September 5, 2008 from Proquest database. Nsiah-Gyabaah, K. (n.d.). Urbanization Processes – Environmental and Health effects in Africa. Retrieved September 5, 2008 from, http://www.populationenvironmentresearch.org/papers/Nsiah-Gyaabah_contribution.pdf