Thalassemia: Red Blood Cell and Hemoglobin Protein Chains

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TABLE OF CONTACTS

• Introduction……………..……..………………………....…………..……3

• Why we are choosing this issue (Thalassemia)?……….………………..…3

• What is Thalassemia?………………………………….…………………...3

• Types of Thalassemia……………………...……...….…………………….3

o Alpha Thalassemia…………..………………....………………….….3

o Beta Thalassemia…………………………..…………………………4

• Treatment of Thalassemia………………………….……………………….4

• The effects of Thalassemia………………………...……………………….4

• What can be done to resolve Thalassemia? ……..…………………………4

• Reference…………………………………………………………………...5

INTRODUCTION

Every society has many issues. Some of these issues are small and the others are big. These issues could be economical issues, environmental issues, political issues and human issues. Diseases are one of the human issues that can be found in every society. There are many reasons that cause diseases. In a society like UAE which has multinationals people it is normally to find some kinds of diseases. One of the serious diseases that can found in the UAE society is Thalassemia.

WHY WE ARE CHOOSING THIS ISSUE (THALASSEMIA)?

We chose this issue for several reasons. First, Thalassemia is becoming a serious issue and one of the most dangerous diseases in the UAE. Second reason is 50% of Thalassemia in the UAE caused by endogamy, so we want to figure out the possible ways to prevent ourselves form Thalassemia (الرؤوف, 2009).Third reasons is the treatment of Thalassemia.

WHAT IS THALASSEMIA?

Thalassemia is genetic disorders that involve the decreased and defective production of hemoglobin, a molecule found inside all red blood cells (RBCs) that transports oxygen throughout the body (Miller, Thalassemias, 2008). As (Hashemi, 2011) says "Thalassemia is blood disorders ". As (Clinaero, n.d.) says" There are mild and severe forms of the disorder as well. Severe Thalassemia is often called Cooley's anemia". There are two main types of Thalassemia and each type has it is own causes and effects. The two main types of Thalassemia are Alpha Thalassemia and Beta Thalassemia and each type is divided into categories.

TYPES OF THALASSEMIA:

i. ALPHA THALASSEMIA:

The first type of Thalassemia is called Alpha Thalassemia. It needs four genes (two from each parent) to make enough alpha hemoglobin protein chains (NHLBI, (n.d.)).Alpha Thalassemia occurs genes are missing. Alpha Thalassemia is divided into four categories which are Silent Carrier, Alpha Thalassemia Trait, "Hemoglobin H" disease, and Alpha Thalassemia Major. Silent Carrier is caused when one of the four alpha genes is missing or damaged. People with this illness have no symptoms (Children's Hospital Boston).Alpha Thalassemia Trait is caused by defects on or the absence of two of the four alpha chains, either on the same chromosome or one from each. People with this form of the illness may have mild anemia, but look and feel normal (Children's Hospital Boston). Hemoglobin H disease is the loss of three alpha genes. People with this form of the illness have severe anemia and may require frequent blood transfusions to survive (Children's Hospital Boston). Alpha Thalassemia major is the most serious form of Thalassemia. It is caused by the loss of all four alpha genes. This form of the illness usually results in fetal or newborn death (Children's Hospital Boston).

ii. BETA THALSSEMIA

The second type of Thalassemia is Beta Thalassemia. It needs two genes (one from each parent) to make enough beta hemoglobin protein chains (NHLBI, (n.d.)).Beta Thalassemia occurs if one or both of two genes are changed. Beta Thalassemia has three main categories which are Beta Thalassemia minor, or trait, Beta Thalassemia intermedia, and Beta Thalassemia major. Beta Thalassemia minor or trait is caused when only one of the two beta genes is abnormal, causing mild anemia. People with this condition may have few or no symptoms (Children's Hospital...
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