Northern Caribbean University
Tour209: Caribbean Tourism and Travel
1. (a) Critically evaluate the impacts that the cruise ship industry has on destinations. (b) Suggest recommendations that can be used to minimize or mitigate the problems Identified in question 2a.
1. Critically evaluate the impacts that the cruise ship industry has on destinations.
The Caribbean represents the main market for the cruise industry. As a major destination, the Caribbean cruised has been activated since early 1980, and has identified itself with the cruising industry over the years. While there are clearly benefits to be gained from cruise ship visits, there are also issues which destinations must consider, in order to optimize benefits and reduce negative impact, ( Manning, 2006). The main challenges encountered by activating the cruise ship industry in the Caribbean are as followed: environment challenges, maintaining market share and growth patterns, the concentration of the cruising industry, the increase in ships capacity, congestion, natural disasters, diversification of the product offered and competition with hotels, (Dridea et al, n.d). Environmental Impacts
The environmental impacts of the cruise industry may be positive or negative. This industry may encourage an appreciation of the environment, and generate support and funds for environmental protection, but it can also degrade the marine and adjacent terrestrial environment. The environmental costs of the sector are incalculable given that the cruise ship industry is unregulated and difficult to gauge widely its impacts, despite enforcing environmental standards for the industry. For example, the introduction of the cruise shipping Port Facilities in Falmouth has posed negative impact on the environment. Mott Macdonald (2007) postulates that the major impacts expected from the development of the Port Facilities in Falmouth includes: loss of habitat and biodiversity such negative impacts are a major concern to Jamaican coastal areas where the reefs are already stressed from a number of anthropogenic and natural threats, loss of fish habitat widening of the entrance of the channel will partially remove the reef wall which is a primary habitat to Bermuda Chub .The potential exists for disruption to fish habitat, spawning and feeding grounds and possibly fish migratory routes. This represents a direct long-term adverse impact to the fish community on the reef and in the harbour. Other environmental impact includes: • Loss of Coral Cover
• Ecological Impacts ( its associated flora and fauna)
• Increased fresh water runoff due to expansion of paved area
• Increased potential for oil spills
The cruise industry has the potential to provide economic benefits to a port state. These economic benefits arise from five principal sources: 1) spending by cruise passengers and crew; 2) the shore side staffing by the cruise lines for their headquarters, marketing and tour operations 3) expenditures by the cruise lines for goods and services necessary for cruise operations; 4) spending by the cruise lines for port services; and 5) expenditures by cruise lines for the maintenance. The cruise industry has provided the highest economic contribution for the United State Virgin Island, according to the survey conducted by the U.S.-based organization Business Research and Economic Advisors (BREA) during the period of 2005-2006 cruise year , it was concluded that the total cruise tourism expenditures in U.S. Virgin Islands summed up to $362 million. St. Maarten had the second highest per passenger spending rate and the highest expenditure rate, resulting in $246 million in cruise tourism expenditures....