The Total Cost
Terrorism has many costs, whether it is emotionally, or financially. No matter the results, failed or successful, there are costs involved. The terrorist utilize finances, energy, time, design and method engineering, as well as the one being terrorized incurring the possibility of greater costs. Either way it is viewed, the loss of life remains the biggest cost, and most impacting. The effect of a single act of terrorism causes fear, reduced lives, jobs, purchases, travel, and lost wages, salaries, and time. Even the “failed” attacks succeed in hitting American's wallets. Understanding the history, causes, and methods used in most terrorism and the initial attacks, helps to develop an understanding of prevention, which ultimately helps protect what each individual holds as valuable. (Indivigilo, 2009, p.1) Terrorism Defined from the Beginning
Terrorism is not easily defined due to the fact that the meaning changes with the changes in social and historical contexts. Although, terrorism is another tactic of Satan’s attempt to remove our relationship from God. The history of terrorism is as old as human's willingness to use violence to affect politics. The Sicarii were a first century Jewish group who murdered enemies and collaborators in their campaign to oust their Roman rulers from Judea. The Hashhashin, were an Islamic group of secrecy in Iran and Syria from the 11th to 13th century. During that time, terrorism began throughout the international system of nation-states. Their success was based on the mass media's creation of fear and terror amongst many people. (Zalman, 2001) Modern terrorism originated from the French Revolution (1789-1799), to describe the action of the French government. After World War II, people revolted against European domination of the world, and nationalistic groups were then viewed as a terrorist group. As years pass, hate groups, violent left-wing groups, and rogue regimes were added to the list of suspected terrorists. (White, 2009, p.6) Although the characterization of terrorism as a state action faded, the idea of terrorism as an attack against an existing political order became more prominent. (Zalman, 2001)
By the 1950's, terrorist groups with a nationalist agenda had formed in every part of the world. A few that are mentioned, the Kurds, the Kurdistan Worker's Party, formed in 1970s, along with Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, which used suicide bombing and other lethal tactics to wage a battle for independence against the Sinhalese majority government. Also throughout this period, high jacking became a favorite tactic. This era gave contemporary sense of terrorism as highly theatrical, symbolic acts of violence by organized groups with specific political grievances. The 1972 Munich Olympics tragedy was politically motivated. This event and those to follow have changed the United States' handling of terrorism.
The acts alone do not define the incident as terrorism, the motive does. The simple definition involves three parts, use of force, innocent people, for political purposes. As well there are different forms of terrorism, such as: (White, 2009, p. 10) • Technological Terrorism: weapons of mass destruction • Cyberterrorism: computer attacks, viruses, or destruction of information infrastructure • Narco-terrorism: drug profits used to finance crime, or gangs use crime to control production and distribution • Ecoterrorism: sabotage, tree spiking, property damage, intimidation, and arson • Nuclear terrorism: nuclear devices or radioactive materials for massive devastation • Agroterrorism: chemical or a disease agent against livestock/crops or into the food chain Causes
Although many people today believe that that religious fanaticism "causes" terrorism, it isn't true. It is known that religious zealotry does not 'cause'...