Consider dropping a piece paper and a brick from the same height. Although in theory they should both strike the ground at the same time; in practice the brick will always strike the ground first. The reason is because of air resistance. As the paper falls to the ground air resistance is pushing the paper up, this slows the acceleration of the paper.

It is known that as the velocity of an object increases the air resistance acting on the object increases. If we consider jumping out of a plane and free fall towards the Earth the F.B.D. would be as follows:

Now the force of gravity acting on the object does not change, however as we speed up towards the Earth the force of air resistance is increasing. Eventually there reaches a point when the Fg = Fair when this occurs we are no longer accelerating towards the Earth, but fall with a constant velocity that is called the TERMINAL VELOCITY.

The terminal velocity of an object in free fall depends on two main factors: 1. The mass of the object
2. The surface area exposed to the air resistance

For example: A human free falling towards Earth has a terminal velocity of 190 km/h. If you use a parachute the terminal velocity is about 20 km/h.

If we were to observe this motion on a speed time graph it would be as follows:

Notice that the velocity of the object increase until it reaches a constant value which is the terminal velocity. Also notice that the acceleration of the object is NOT CONSTANT, meaning the constant acceleration equations do not apply, but Newton’s second law still does.

Laboratory:

Design a laboratory to determine the proportionality and proportionality constant between the terminal velocity and the mass. You will have available to you coffee filters, meter stick, tape and a stop watch.

You will submit a Laboratory Report including the following sections:...

...
Background Information
Terminalvelocity is when a falling object reaches a constant velocity due to a balance in the forces of weight and air resistance. In this experiment, we dropped marbles of difference weights in 100 ml of oil to calculate their terminalvelocity.
Research Question
How does the mass of an object effect its terminalvelocity?
Aim
Our aim is to measure theterminalvelocity, of marbles of different masses, in oil.
hypothesis
Objects of larger mass will take longer to reach the bottom of the cylinder, whereas objects of lesser mass will take less time to reach the bottom of the cylinder.
Variables
Independent Variable: Volume of oil
Dependent variable: Time taken
Controlled variable: Weight of marbles
Apparatus & Materials
1. Measuring cylinder
2. Oil
3. Weighing machine
4. Marbles of different sizes
5. Timer
6. Paper
7. Pen
8. Calculator
method & procedure
1. Get apparatus ready on a clear table.
2. Get
Data
Calculations
Time taken*length of cylinder = terminalvelocity
Small marble
1st trial – 0.002*18
=0.036
2nd trial – 0.015*18
=0.27
3rd trial – 0.016*18
=0.288
4th trial – 0.035*18
=0.063
Average: 0.657/4
= 0.16425
Medium marble
1st trial – 0.015*18
=0.27
2nd trial – 0.056*18
=1.008...

...less acceleration and once the air resistance is stronger then the terminalvelocity that is when the object is going at a small velocity.
TerminalVelocity
When there is equal force acting on an object when falling such as gravity and air resistance at that stage it is called constant speed or terminalvelocity. When the object is dropped the force of gravity initially is 100% but as it falls the air resistance becomes stronger making the gravity weaker and at one stage there will be terminalvelocity. In some cases due to the mass and weight of an object and the height they fall the terminalvelocity may be quicker or slower.
The Ant and The Man
When the man falls from the 10 story high building and splats to the ground this is because of his fall. When he falls due to the weight of him he falls quicker and gravity has a stronger force on him and air resistance doesn’t and in reality he may not even reach the terminalvelocity or he may reach it near to the ground and hence he is accelerating at a high rate off the building making him splat on the floor.
However when the ant falls from the table which in comparison to the ants height an 100 story building when the ant falls he survives on the floor. This is also linked with the timing of the terminal...

...E102-MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE
GUIDE QUESTIONS:
1. From the data obtained, what is the effect of the height of the track to the cart’s acceleration?
The data shows that sinӨ, which is dependent on the height, is getting higher as acceleration is increasing. This implicates that when object is at higher altitude, its acceleration is faster.
2. From the data obtained, how is time, t related to the inclination of the track? Explain why?
Time and position of velocity are interrelated to each other and the height and gravitational pull affects the acceleration of a moving and a free falling object.
3. From the data obtained, how would you account the difference between the picket fence’s acceleration and the value of g?
The value of the slope of a graph of average velocity versus time will be the acceleration due to gravity of the falling object.
E102-MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE
PROBLEM:
1. A police car is searching for a fugitive that managed to escape a while ago. Knowing that he is now safe, the fugitive begins to take a rest until he notices a police car approaching him at 10 m/s, accelerating at 5 m/s2 and it is 100 m away. The fugitive grabs a motorcycle and stars it accelerating at the same rate as the police car. How much time will it take the police car to catch the fugitive?
x = xo + vot + 1at2
2
xpolice = 0m +10m/s (t) + 0.5(5m/s2)t2
xfugitive...

...2: SPEED, VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION
2.1 Distance and Displacement
• Distance is the total length covered by a moving object irrespective of the direction of motion, i.e. only the magnitude is of importance.
• Displacement is the distance measured in straight line AND in a specific d__________________. Both magnitude and d_________________ are important.
Example 1
A car travels 5 km due east and makes a U-turn back to travel a further distance of 3 km.
Find (a) the distance covered, (b) its displacement.
|(a) Distance covered = 5 + 3 = 8 km |[pic] |
|(b) Displacement = 5 – 3 = 2 km due east of starting point. | |
2.2 Speed and Velocity (Text pg 48: Unit 3.2)
Vectors and Scalars
• scalars – magnitude ONLY
• vectors – magnitude + direction
Speed
• defined as the rate of change of distance, in other words, distance moved per unit time
• instantaneous speed: speed at that particular instant
Average speed = Total distance
Total time
• SI unit : metre per second (ms-1)
• 1 ms-1 = km h-1
=
Example 2
In the 1988 Seoul Olympics, Ben Johnson broke the world record to run 100 metres in 9.83 seconds. What was his average speed?
Average speed = 100 / 9.83
= 10.2 ms–1
Velocity
• Defined as...

... Oct. 29, 2013
2010150921 Nov. 05, 2013
PHY10L/A11
Experiment # 2
KINEMATICS
Abstract - Kinematics of linear motion is defined as the studies of motion of objects without considering the effects that produce the motion. This experiment will show how to determine the linear motion with constant (uniform) velocity particularly the dynamic cart and linear motion with constant (uniform) acceleration, (e.g. free fall of motion). At the end of the experiment we found out that the velocity is a speed that involves direction of an object as well as the time. While for the acceleration, it is directly proportional to the distance or height but inversely proportional to the time. By close observations, recording of data and right computations we were able to come up with accurate results. Hence, the objectives of this experiment were successfully achieved.
I. INTRODUCTION - Kinematics is a branch of mechanics that studies the motion of a body or a system of bodies without consideration given to its mass or the forces acting on it. Kinematics uses the following basic concepts: distance, displacement, speed, velocity and acceleration. It describes the position and motion of an object as a function of time, but does not include the causes or factors that affect the motion. The two methods by which the motion of an object can be described are those using mathematical equations and graphical analysis.
We...

...limitations of manures. Write any one function of the following: [3] (a) Lysosome (b) Golgi apparatus (c) Endoplasmic Reticulum (a) What is mixed cropping? (b) Write any two advantages of mixed cropping.
11.
12.
13.
14.
[3]
15. The velocity time graph of a ball of mass 20 g moving along a straight line on a level ground is given below. How much force does the ground exert on the ball to bring it to rest? [3]
16.
(a) A car accelerates uniformly from 18 kmh-1 to 36 kmh-1 in 5s. Calculate: (i) acceleration (ii) distance covered by the car in that time. [3] (b) The length of minute hand of a clock is 14 cm. calculate the speed with which the tip of the minute hand moves. [2] [1]
17. (a) Define the term inertia. Name the quantity that measures it. (b) Which physical quantity corresponds to rate of change of momentum?
18. (a) Two objects of masses M1 and M2 are dropped in vacuum from a height above the surface of Earth (M1 is greater than M2). Which one will reach the ground first and why? [1] (b) The earth attracts the moon. Does the moon attract the earth? If it does, why does the earth not move towards the moon? [2] 19. A ball thrown up vertically returns to the the thrower after 6s. Find: (a) The velocity with which it was thrown up. (b) The maximum height it reaches. (c) Its position after 4s. (Given g= 9.8 m/s2) [3]
20(a) How can a saturated solution be made unsaturated? (b) Give any four application of...

...the forces that cause the motion. There are four activities done in this experiment. Graphical analysis of human motion, where displacement vs time and velocity vs. time were graphed. Graphical analysis of motion where in the 10th seconds the total displacement is 18.75m, average velocity is 1.88m/s and instantaneous velocity is 3.76m/s. Reaction time where one of the normal reaction time among the group is 0.16s and the reaction time while someone is distracting the member is 0.30s, and lastly graph matching.
Introduction:
As a living organism, all of us have the potential to move, change in position, or go to different places. In short, life is in constant motion. From the prehistoric chase of antelopes across the savanna to the pursuit of satellites in space, mastery of motion has been critical to our survival and success as a species. The study of motion and of physical concepts such as force and mass is called Dynamics. Kinematics is one of the topics under dynamics. Kinematics describes motion without regard to its causes. In this experiment, kinematics focuses in one dimension: a motion along a straight line. This kind of motion, actually any kind of motion, involves velocity, displacement, and acceleration with regards to time. The objectives of the experiment are to draw the displacement versus time graphs and velocity versus time graphs for uniform motion and uniformly accelerated motion,...

...is dropped from rest. It falls to the concrete floor and bounces back up ALMOST to its initial height. A motion detector is mounted on the ceiling directly above the ball, facing down. So, the positive direction -- the away-from-the-detector direction -- is downward. Draw the position, velocity, and acceleration graphs.
Since moving downward is a positive direction, is the velocity positive when the ball falls, 0 when it hits the ground, and then negative when it moves up? Is the accerlation positive (9.8) as the ball falls, very positive when it hits the ground, and then neg (almost -9.8) when it moves up? Keep in mind that the problem says: the ball bounces back up ALMOST to its initial height. Also, please help me with understanding how the position graph should look like. If there is any way that you could draw me the graphs, that would really be helpful. Thank you!
You're halfway right.
Velocity will be positive as the ball falls, zero on impact, negative on the way up, and zero again at apogee.
Acceleration, however, is constantly 9.8 m/s²...the force of gravity does not change as the ball moves.
For your graphs, acceleration will be a horizontal line at y=9.8
Velocity will be a broken sinusiod (oscillating) that starts at the origin and rises to a maximum. On each impact with the ground, the graph will drop straight down to a minimum, then rise gradually through zero back up to its next...