| Children| Teenager| Adult|
Intellectual Development| According to Piaget (1972) children (up to the age of about 11) are still in an intellectual stage which is called “concrete operation”.Rules in abstract term should be avoided.Don’t explain grammar using terms like “present progressive”.Patterns need more repetition| Some sophisticated intellectual processing is increasingly possible around the age of 12. Using logical thinking therefore if a learner is attending to self, to appearance, being accepted, sexual thoughts, the intellectual task may suffer| More able to handle abstract rules and concepts.| Attention Span| Children are focused on the here and now.Needs a variety of activities.Teacher needs to be animated, lively, and enthusiastic about the subject matter.A sense of humor will a go a long way in keeping children laughing and learning.| Lengthening as a result of intellectual maturation, but once again with many diversion present in a teenagers’ life, those potential attention span can easily be shortened| Have longer attention span for material that may not be intrinsically interesting to them| Sensory input| Pepper your lesson with physical activity, such as play games, TPR.Sensory aids help children to internalize conceptsFacial features, gestures and body language will help children to remember | Varieties of sensory input are still important but again, increasing capacities for abstraction lessen the essential nature of appealing all five senses| It is not always be as varied with adults, but one of the secrets of lively adult classes is their appeal to multiple senses| Affective factors| Children are so sensitive and their ego are still being shaped. It means there are a lot of potential barriers to learn the language.Teacher should be patient and supportive to build their self esteem| Ego, self image, and self esteem are sensitive factor in this age. Teacher’s role is to keep their self esteem | Often bring a modicum of general self-confidence-self esteem into a classroom| Authentic, meaningful language| Children are less willing to have an overload of language that is neither authentic nor meaningful.Language needs to be firmly context embedded. Story lines, familiar situation and character, real life conversation. | Secondary school students are becoming adult like in their ability to make those occasional from “here and now”. So authentic material is so important| Authentic, meaningfulness are of course still highly important, but in adult language teaching, a teacher can take temporary digressions to dissect and examine isolated in linguistic properties as long as based on context|
b. Do’s and Don’ts in teaching each group ; Children, Teens, and Adult. a. Children
* Don’t explain grammar using terms like “present progressive”. * Do make sense of humor will a go a long way in keeping children laughing and learning. * Do give your students as many opportunities as possible to make choices, what they will do in and out classroom * don’t discipline adults in the same way like children b. Teens
* Do keep self-esteem high of teens by avoiding embarrassment of students * Do explore teens’ talents and strengths
* Don’t give the complex material
* Do remember even though adults cannot express complex thinking in the new language, they are intelligent grown-up with mature cognition. Show respect to them * Don’t treat adults like children by calling them “kids”, using “care taker”, and talking down to them.
2. Authentic material ; there are four reading texts about tourism destination Komodo National Park : Into The Heart of The Dragons
Real dragons spurt no fire, have no need to fly and cast no magic spells. And still, one look...